The contemporary legal landscape in Southern Africa and its responsiveness to the challenges in the region can be explained in many ways. Part of the explanation has been the idea of legal transplants—which entails borrowing and adapting legal norms, and structures from different legal systems in order to resolve legal problems in the region. The end of apartheid and other rapid changes in the region—political, racial, economic and social—has directly placed the courts on the frontlines of human rights protection especially on socio-economic rights and other overarching concerns of law reform. The adoption of constitutional courts in some of the countries, and consequent judicial activist turn in the jurisprudence of courts in the region generally; has inserted the courts into the mainstream of policy deliberations. Thus, this paper claims that legal transplant per se does not explain the full reality of what is going on in the region—in terms of nomativization, transmission, adoption, and adaptation of legal ideas within the respective systems in the region. It further claims that a mesh of different understandings and approaches to legal comparison and development is more suitable as a method of studying pluralist complex systems as we see in the region. Hence, the notion of judicial translation—the judiciary forming the membrane, purveyor and capillary of legal transmission—as an essential lens through which we can better view and understand the legal evolution in the region. Taking the institution of courts – particularly constitutional courts—and examining their jurisprudence as epitomized in some of their decisions of finality—the work seeks to begin a meaningful deliberation about the role of courts in law, social change, and policy in the region. It is divided into three major parts for ease of discourse. It is hoped that this would be a fitting exordium into the more significant meaning of legal transplant through judicial intervention in otherwise predominantly policy questions in the Southern African region.
The article is dealing with the new German legal regulation concerning so called securities class actions. Th e author sees the new possibilites to bind together claims which arose from false information in capital market as a followor of the US class actions, therefore the article explains with the aim to simplify the intepretation of the new German legal rules the current American legal regulation of class actions. Th is means it analyses mainly the article 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Prodecure and brings opinions of the author whether its particularities may function in Germany or not.
The article presents the Crimean conflict from Russian and Ukrainian standpoints, confronting them with international law analysis. It is worth to mention, that Crimean crisis is still extremely controversial, since both parties are justifying their actions with norms of international law. This article starts with brief introduction of historical background of the Crimean crisis. Second chapter assesses the Crimean secessionist movement claiming the right of self-determination, and its compliance with Ukrainian law. Third chapter examines Russia’s position and its actions on the basis of Russian law. Fourth chapter presents the international law analysis of events in Crimea and its current legal status. Results of the analysis are presented in a conclusion.
Although the Organization of American States’ Inter-American human rights system has played a key role in the advancement of human rights, its work has recently become controversial. Some leftist governments have alleged bias, criticizing the system as a politicized one that prioritizes certain rights over others and embodies a neoliberal ideology that reflects disproportionate US influence. The system has also faced perceptions of cultural bias from Anglophone Caribbean states. This article tests the veracity of these allegations using statistical analysis of Inter-American Commission on Human Rights decisions. It finds that, even when controlling for a range of relevant factors, there have been significant differences in the Commission’s receptiveness to different types of claims of human rights violations. However, the Commission’s decisions have not exhibited any political or cultural biases. Also, to the extent there has been bias involving the United States, it has arguably been bias against the United States.
The article is focused on a serious dispute between the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Tribunal over interpretative verdicts in the Republic of Poland. This kind of decisions are issued by the Tribunal. Interpretative verdicts contain explanation (interpretation) of a statutory provision, which constitutionality is controlled by the Tribunal. The main problem is, if this kind of decisions bind other courts. Judges of the Tribunal Court claim that courts, including the Supreme Court, are suppose to obey interpretative verdicts. The judges of Supreme Court maintain that this kind of decisions only indicates one of possible interpretation of a statutory provision and courts don’t have to follow it. In the article the author describes this type of verdicts, their history and explains the essence of the dispute.
Article deals with the problem of the harmonisation and unification of the family law in the European Union as the consequence of the building the single European Space. Th e main claim of the author is that a speedy unification of substantive family law, particularly one that is decreed by European institutions, would lead to loss on national and regional legal culture, what accorfing the author can’t be justified. Th e alternative is a close cooperation of individual European cultural groups or neighboring countries and the unification of the conflict of laws provisions and of the law of jurisdiction of the courts as well as by enacting regulations on (mutual) recognition and enforcement of court decision.
India’s BIT program is the largest among the developing countries and its integration into the global economy has also increased its exposure to BIT claims. Several foreign corporations presented ITA notices against various Indian regulatory measures prompting India to suspend all trading of BITs in progress that led to a change in its position in the International investment law regime with repercussions in the International business community eager to participate in its business. These recent developments have then determined the need to review India’s BIT program in a global vision. The paper ‘International Investment Agreements Between India and Others Countries’ (2011), showed the importance of ensuring a balance between investor rights and national policy which India has not been able to make guarantor pushing in different circumstances to revise their existing BITs and defining new perspectives for future negotiations. The paper reflects on experiences of BITs in a global vision..
Human rights are much talked about and much written about, in academic legal literature as well as in political and other social sciences and the general political debate. Indeed, they are so oft en referred to and used as a basis for claims of various kinds that there may be a risk of certain “inflation” in that so much is said to be a human right that the notion loses its essential meaning. Th is article argues that the universality of basic human rights is one of the values of the concept of rights. Th e rights and the understanding and interpretation of rights may have to be purist. Th is may be the way universal human rights as a concept can survive at all. In the modern world there are different trends that to some extent conflict, like the trend of globalisation but also the re- emphasising in different parts of the world of traditional values, whether from a religious background or something else. It appears that the basic dogma of human rights - which has also been called the first universal ideology - that it is the individual and her rights and freedoms that should always be in the centre of any human rights discourse, is abandoned all the more oft en as the central principle. Instead the banner of human rights is used for various political and economic aims
Over the last forty years the concept of the horizontal positive obligations of the State Parties to the European Convention on Human Rights has been developing in a number of cases of the European Court of Human Rights. This concept extends the protection of Convention rights and freedoms to horizontal relations, that is, to the relations between two private parties. However, the Convention on Human Rights can be violated only by the State; the violation by private parties is not possible, as private parties are not parties to the Conventions. Therefore, the only way to challenge a violation of Convention rights committed by private parties is to link this action to an act or omission of the State, and to claim that the State is responsible for it. This, in turn, requires demonstrating that the Convention obliges the State to protect one individual’s Convention rights from violations committed by other individuals. The State has a wide margin of appreciation as to how it discharges the obligation to protect Convention rights against violations by private individuals.
. International & Comparative Law Quaterly, 2016, Vol. 65, No. 2, Pp. 343-378.
Dumberry, Patrick. Requiem For Crimea: Why Tribunals Should Have Declined Jurisdiction Over The Claims Of Ukraininan Investors Against Russian Under The Ukraine-Russia Bit.
Journal Of International Dispute Settlement, 2018, Vol. 9, Pp. 506-533.
Happ, Richard, Wuschka, Sebastian. Horror Vacui: Or Why Investment Treaties Should Apply To Illegally Annexed Territories. Journal Of International Arbitration, 2016, Vol. 33, Pp. 245