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The Silver Spring monkey controversy: changing cultures of care in twentieth-century laboratory animal research

Abstract

In September 1981 police raided the Institute for Behavioral Research (Silver Spring, Maryland, USA) seizing a number of macaque monkeys in response to accusations of animal cruelty against the neuroscientist Edward Taub. Over the following decade a volatile battle was fought as Taub, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the nascent animal rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), contested the claims and decided the monkeys’ fate. In spite of the monkeys having been surgically altered so as to be incapable of feeling pain a loose alliance of veterinarians, ethologists and animal advocates argued that they nonetheless suffered. Whilst this episode is often seen as a polarized confrontation between science and society, this paper argues that the Silver Spring monkey controversy saw two historically distinct cultures of laboratory animal care meet resulting in the development of new approaches to animal welfare in biomedical science.

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A Cost Increase Analysis of Weapon Systems Using the Paache Index: Cases from the German Bundeswehr

Abstract

The media and the public often make claims regarding the excessive cost increases in the development and production of major weapon systems such as fighter planes, submarines or tanks. The purpose of this research is in assessing the cost increase of such weapon systems during their procurement periods with the help of the Paasche price index. In contrast to other approaches, which focus upon either the specific situations of single weapon systems or cost increases relative to planned budgets, we compare several projects of military services and their cost increases over time to reveal generalisable trends.

For this purpose, we used a framework model that allows for performance and cost comparisons. This paper primarily emphasises the cost perspective by calculating a Paasche index for each chosen project. As a background case for our analysis, we have used the acquisition projects for major weapon systems in Germany. However, the framework model that this study employs is universally applicable.

In contrast to the public perception of cost increases, we could not find any clear trend that would indicate that modern weapon systems have a significantly higher (or lower) cost increase than was the case for projects several decades before. To give brief insight into the empirical findings, the cost increase ratios of the Starfighter and Eurofighter jets have the same level, while cost increase ratios of other weapon systems (APC tanks, submarines) differ significantly (to the worse and to the better) over time. Our findings imply that there is no general trend that today the costs for weapon systems increase more/less than some decades ago. This paper calculates data only from the regarded seven cases therefore we could not question the causes for this observation on basis of our sample. However, it appears that, within a specific service or a specific vehicle type (tank, fighter jet, ship/boat), cost increases may be similar over time.

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Strategy as Discursive Construction in the Finnish Defence Forces

Abstract

This paper draws upon critical discourse analysis to analyse an empirical study of strategy practices in a military organization. The recent practice-turn in strategy research emphasizes the meaning of discourses, routines and activities in a strategy formation process. Strategy is not understood only as an attribute of an organization, but also as activity; it is something people do and say or leave undone and unspoken. Research concerning strategy practices has, however, ignored military organizations and concentrated mainly on private enterprises and public administration. In this paper we argue that there is a need for a practice-turn in the military context as well. Just as practice theory has proven its usefulness in examining corporate strategies, it can also contribute to our understanding of the actual strategy process in military organizations and help us understand the practices behind formulated strategy.

We focus on the high-level strategic planners in the Finnish Defence Forces and analyse their conceptions of the strategy process. Based on the data of 14 in-depth interviews, the paper's goal is to analyse the discursive elements of strategy talk in a military organization. This paper will concentrate on three central issues. (1) What is the relationship between civil and military strategists while formulating strategy in a military organization? (2) Who are defined as strategists? (3) Are the high-level strategy planners aware of a variety of hidden agendas and power relations that shape the strategy formulation process? Although the discourses and practices we have found are, of course, context-specific, we claim that similar kind of strategic discourses and practices can be found in other military organizations and possibly even in non-military organizations.

Research on civil-military relations has traditionally concentrated on examining the interaction between civil and military organizations but neglected the interaction within these organizations. Our study shows that formulating strategy in military organizations is a complex process far from the Clausewitzian conception that delimits the concept of strategy only to conventional war. Direction-setting, monitoring and allocation of resources are all outcomes of a constant debate between political, military, technological, economical and cultural aspects. Getting to know this kind of process can be beneficial for strategy researchers and managers working in the corporate field as well.

In addition, the Finnish Defence Forces constitute an interesting field for strategy research, as it is one of the three European armies that relies on compulsory military service. The fact that almost every male citizen has served guarantees a special position for this institution in society and particularly in strategy discourses.

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Secular Formatting of the Sacred: Human Rights and the Question of Secularization and Re-Sacralization

argues convincingly that the concept of disenchantment is used idiosyncratically by Weber and even more so by subsequent secularization theorists (e.g. Berger 1967; 1974). Hence, he claims that the concept is misleading and obfuscates the fact that there are various processes covered by the term, partly working in opposite directions: In an incredibly suggestive way, Weber has combined events in the narrative of disenchantment that run from the prophets of the Old Testament via the Reformation and the Enlightenment up to the crisis of meaning in Europe during the so

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Rethinking the unthinkable – revisiting theories of nuclear deterrence and escalation

political decisions may intensify a crisis. Kahn (1962) called this kind of accidental war a “war by miscalculation” and claimed that it might result from the process generally called “escalation.” A limited move may appear safe, but set into motion a disastrous sequence of decisions and actions. One may readily imagine some intensifying crisis in which neither side really believes the issue is big enough to end in war, but in which both sides are willing to accept some small risk of war. (p. 47) To illustrate how a political confrontation could lead to nuclear war

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Contemporary Religiosity and the Absence of Solidarity With Those in Need

://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/poland/report-poland/ (accessed 2/6/2018). While at first glance, the religious affiliation of the population of the four countries differs dramatically, ranging from those characterized as predominantly religious (Poland and Slovakia) to those understood as secular (the Czech Republic and Hungary), See, for example, “Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe,” Pew Research Centre, 10 May 2017, http://www.pewforum.org/2017/05/10/religious-affiliation/ (accessed 4/6/2018). the political rhetoric “justifying” the fears frequently includes a claim to be upholding

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How to Respond to Conflicts Over Value Pluralism?

. An important reason why the ethnic factor of socio-cultural diversity has become much more conflictual in recent years is that younger people with a non-Western cultural background raise their voices more often and louder than the older generation. Many of them have lived in the Netherlands for a long time or were even born there, and do not see this country as a host country ( Dagevos a.o. 2014 , 276f.). Hence, they want the Dutch, including the politicians, to understand that they wish to be considered as full members of Dutch society and claim the right to

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Organizational challenges and leaders’ coping strategies: a qualitative study of Swedish military staff organization

unhealthy culture ( Gini 1997 ; Jackall 1988 ). Some researchers have identified particular aspects of ON ( Brown 1997 ; Tobacyk and Mitchell 1987 ). The first of these criteria includes denial . This describes a process when organizations deny facts about themselves using spokespersons, propaganda campaigns, annual reports and myths. The second is rationalization , which happens when organizations develop justifications for their actions, inactions, decisions and responsibilities. The third is self-aggrandizement , which occurs when organizations make claims to

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Forced Entanglements: Stories of Expulsion, Sovereign Power and Bare Life

silence, from whence stories are only rarely heard, and about which, we only rarely tell stories. This is the realm of expulsion. The unpredictable moment of Chiakwa’s death, and others since then, in the context of forced detention and deportations, is one of those rare moments in which the realm of expulsion, suddenly visible, revealed the fractures and strains in the narrative economy that Agnes Woolley calls “the asylum story”; See, for an excellent article on the veracity claim in narratives in the asylum regime, Agnes Woolley (2017), Narrating the “Asylum Story

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Narrative des Anthropozän – Systematisierung eines interdisziplinären Diskurses

Durchsetzung des Anthropozän geht es damit auch um wissenschaftliche Reputation, Deutungshoheit und das Abstecken von Claims, die in den Narrativen transportiert werden. Die Bedeutung der Anthropozän-Hypothese wird mit den großen wissenschaftlichen Paradigmenwechseln wie Darwins Evolutionstheorie ( Steffen et al. 2011 : 862) oder der von Galilei ausgelösten Kontroverse der Stellung des Menschen im Universum ( Latour 2014 : 3f.) parallelisiert. Durch die Deklaration des neuen Erdzeitalters verschiebt sich zudem die Hierarchie der Disziplinen: Die wichtigsten Impulse für

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