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THE EFFECT OF BIODEGRADATION/DEGRADATION OF DEGRADABLE PLASTIC MATERIAL ON COMPOST QUALITY

Abstract

The objective of this study was to find out whether the quality of compost would change during the process of composting carrier bags claimed by manufacturers as compostable or biodegradable in terms of parameters stipulated in the standard ČSN 46 5735 Industrial composts. Eight samples were subjected to the composting process in laboratory conditions. The compost samples were analyzed in the accredited laboratory. All samples met parameters stipulated for Class II. Seven samples of the eight met parameters stipulated in the standard ČSN 46 5735 for Class I. The samples had no influence on compost characteristics: strength, content of water and salt, pH value, content of nutrients or proportion of organic substances; other components of the compost remained unchanged. Optical changes of the compost did not occur either.

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Evaluation of Biogas Production and Usage Potential

, Weiland P, Wellinger A. Biogas from Energy Crop Digestion. IEA Bioenergy, 2010. http://www.iea-biogas.net/files/daten-redaktion/download/publications/Workshops/8/5-Energy_crops.pdf. [14] Tilman D, Eich RP, Nops KJ. Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment. Nature. 2006;441:629-632. DOI: 10.1038/nature04742. [15] Weiland P. Impact of competition claims for food and energy on German biogas production. Paper presented at the IEA Bio-energy Seminar. Ludlow, UK, April 17th, 2008. http

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Ranking of Effects of Construction Delay: Evidence from Malaysian Building Projects

Abstract

The problem of delay is a regular phenomenon in construction projects all around the world and the Malaysian building projects has no exclusion. The aim of this paper is to determine and rank the effects of delay in Malaysian building projects with respect to their Relative Importance Index. Literature review and questionnaire survey were used to gather data for this study. A thorough literature review was performed to identify the common effects of delays in building construction projects. A questionnaire was distributed among key project participants; contractors, clients and consultants, to rank the effects of delay in Malaysian building projects based on the perception of survey respondents. In total 300 questionnaires were distributed, as a result of 240 questionnaires were received. The collected data of questionnaire survey was analysed using statistical software SPSS. In total, 17 effects of the delays have been determined and findings from the survey revealed that time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, loss of profit, arbitration, claims, contract termination, litigation, poor quality of work, and total project abandonment were the main effects of delay in Malaysian building projects. The findings of this study might encourage construction stakeholders to focus on the issue of delays in building projects.

Open access