supply, all of the dependent variables that we measure are household summaries; we only need to observe one parent to capture any changes to partner behavior.
Table 1 summarizes all of the matched mothers in our sample, together and separated into three age groups: working age (less than 62 years old), the retirement windo This is defined by Social Security, the early retirement age is 62 years old; and after age 70, there is no longer a financial incentive to delay claiming. (age 62-70), and retired (older than 70). We will use this grouping in subgroup analysis
Pablo de Pedraza, Stefano Visintin, Kea Tijdens and Gábor Kismihók
advertisements online in their search for suitable workers. Since 2007, the private company Textkernel http://www.textkernel.com/nl/ . has been scraping online vacancies in the Netherlands. Although there is no way to establish whether all online vacancies are being crawled, Textkernel claims to be crawling all websites with vacancies that are known to them, based on their many years of experience, as well as new websites with vacancies. The Textkernel algorithm is continuously updated and improved. With the exception of an anomaly, due to early stages of the algorithm
prospects do not necessarily decrease. However, many recent papers claim employment prospects are diminished, and it could be having an aggregate effect on the economy. Schmitt and Warner (2011) estimate that the ex-offender population lowered the male employment rate in 2008 by 1.5 to 1.7 percentage points, costing the United States about $57–$65 billion. A more recent paper by Abraham and Kearney (2018) used 2014 NLSY97 data as a proxy to estimate that there are 5.13 million working age individuals with a prior prison term of more than 2 years and that the 2016
under the same terms as Belgian nationals. In practice, however, asylum seekers are unable to avail themselves of these benefits since a work history (or at least a minimum qualifying period) is required, which, of course, they cannot meet ( Mussche et al. 2013 ). In contrast to unemployment benefits, social assistance – noncontributory guaranteed minimum resources – does not have any requirements such as waiting periods and compulsory payment of contributions. People can apply for the subsidiary minimum income if they cannot claim other social insurance benefits
Monras, Nuria Rodriguez-Planas, Kevin Shih, Thom Thurston, Marcos Vera-Hernandez, Bob Warren, and all seminar participants at San Diego State University, the Philadelphia Fed, Pomona College, CReAM-UCL, and participants at Columbia University’s workshop on Shaping the Future of DACA for helpful comments.
Abrego, Leisy J (2011): Legal Consciousness of Undocumented Latinos: Fear and Stigma as Barriers to Claims-Making for First-and 1.5-Generation Immigrants. Law & Society Review 45(2), 337-370. 10.1111/j.1540-5893.2011.00435.x Abrego Leisy J 2011
Alexander Hijzen, Pedro S. Martins and Jante Parlevliet
on collective bargaining has tended to concentrate on the level of bargaining . An influential view originally proposed by Calmfors and Driffill (1988) held that systems with predominantly sector-level bargaining lead to excessive wage claims relative to productivity. As a result, these systems were thought to be associated with weaker labour market performance than either centralised systems, which provide flexibility at the aggregate level by inducing unions and employer associations to internalise the macro-economic effects of wage claims on economy
all parents to claim the benefits during the first six months after childbirth. Afterward, only 50% of families were entitled to the benefit.
Even though fathers became eligible for parental leave in 1986, the male take-up ratio of the leave was insignificant. Parental leave was effectively maternal leave, and child-rearing was considered a traditional maternal activity within the “bread-winner” household model. German mothers delayed their return to work, and the availability to take longer leave weakened their labor force attachments (Schönberg and Ludsteck
employed in the future.
Impact of the program on formal employment by type of employer
Note : Two respondents in the control group claimed to be employed with their ALMP employer even though they did not complete the ALMP. This is why in the figure above the control group does not have 0% employment by ALMP employers.
Similar to the results of other impact evaluations of ALMPs ( McKenzie, 2017 ), the program did not lead youth in the treatment group to be more likely to have earned cash or searched for a job compared to youth in the control group