Aleksandrs Matvejevs, Anatoliy Malyarenko and Andrejs Matvejevs
): Modern Actuarial Risk Theory. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
 Kremer (1982): IBNR-Claims and the Two-Way Model of ANOVA. Scand.Act.J., Vol.1, p.47-55.
 Norberg, R. (1993): Prediction of Outstanding Liabilities in Non-Life Insurance, ASTIN Bulletin,Vol 23, No 1, p. 95-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.2143/AST.23.1.2005103
 Schiegl, M. (2002): On the Safety Loading for Chain Ladder Estimates: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study, ASTIN Bulletin, Vol. 32, No. 107.
 Schmidt, K. (2006): Methods and
series of 39 surveys in the United States from 1996 through 2002 (showed that 42% of adults claimed to follow health news stories in the mass media ( Brodie, 2003 ). It is therefore reasonable for universities and scholars to seek press coverage to promote their work. From a scientometric perspective, newspaper coverage of research may also be used as evidence of the wider impact of the cited papers ( Fogg-Rogers, Grand, & Sardo, 2015 ) in addition to reflecting or causing (by publicity) its greater value within academia (e.g., Fanelli, 2013 ). It is important for
papers dealt with most keywords later than others. However, the time range of the data, starting at 2014, complicated the explanation because we did not know if there were occurrences earlier than 2014 for those keywords ShanghaiTech papers claimed to use concurrently with others. A much longer time range is needed.
The most frequent keywords of Molecular Biology & Genetics of benchmarking institutions and year of first appearance in ShanghaiTech’s papers.
non-textual, structured or non-structured, domain specific or cross-domain, dynamic or interactive data.
The consequences of this evolution are far-reaching. It creates exciting opportunities. Take for instance the seminal work by Charles P. Snow ( Snow, 1959 ). In this book, Charles P. Snow develops and describes the concept of the Two Cultures. The two cultures he identified were those of the literary intellectuals and of the natural scientists. Between them, a wide and insurmountable gap exists, he claims. This profound incomprehension and mutual suspicion
usually strictly larger than one. This indicator is not very precise because the number of 7- and 8-digit IPC codes is quite different per class ( Lodh & Battaggion, 2014 ; Zhang, Chen, & Niu, 2012 ).
Generally, the broader the scope of a patent, the larger the number of competing products and processes that might infringe on the patent ( Merges & Nelson, 1990 ). In this context, these authors pointed out that excessively broad patents may lead to use by other parties. Yet, Gilbert and Shapiro (1990) claimed that broader patents provide inventors with a greater
their work completely transparent to fellow scholars, and the process from data to conclusions should be interpretable and reproducible.
In recent years, the American Political Science Association (APSA) formally established transparency standards for qualitative and quantitative research by reinforcing the ethical obligation of researchers to facilitate the evaluation of their evidence-based knowledge claims through data access, production transparency, and analytic transparency. APSA proposed a new way of citing references called “active citation,” which suggests
Using cumulative citation curves
In recent papers Du & Wu (2017 , 2018 ) note some disadvantages of the definition proposed by Ke et al. (2015) , the most important one being the high importance given to the peak. They claim that the determination of the B -value works well for publications that after discovery have huge numbers of citations every year, but for publications with fewer citations, it may lead to some unwanted results. They, moreover, consider the role of the denominator in the original definition as just a way to avoid
Patents and Their Citations: Basic Properties
Patents are documents with a legal status to describe and claim technological innovations. Figure 1 presents as an example the front page of a recent patent (patent publication year is 2014) of a membrane fuel cell. In this front page we find the data related to the patent publication date, the patent number, the international patent classification (IPC) codes which indicate the relevant fields of technology, and the names and affiliations of the inventors. Figure 2 shows the first page of the
access the log files of important scholarly websites for this.
On a small scale, an individual might include altmetrics on their curriculum vitae (CV) to support a claim about the type of impact that it had gathered ( Piwowar & Priem, 2013 ). A limitation of this is that social websites are easily spammed and so altmetrics can never form strong evidence of research impact ( Wouters & Costas, 2012 ). Altmetrics are also used by some academic publishers to display alongside articles in their digital libraries in order to show visitors which articles have received the
Dangzhi Zhao, Alicia Cappello and Lucinda Johnston
latter, which relies on the researchers’ judgment or interpretation instead of the citing authors’ motivational claims. This approach is unobtrusive but speculative, and can suffer from a low degree of confidence and accuracy, thus creating reliability concerns. However, these concerns are more relevant when the researchers do not have a clearly defined coding scheme. Another limitation of this approach is its scalability and generalizability. The scale of this type of studies has always been small due to the time consuming nature of manually coding large numbers of