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De Facto States and Democracy: The Case of Abkhazia


De-facto states constitute an interesting and important anomaly in the international system of sovereign states. No matter how successful and efficient in the administration of their territories they are, they fail to achieve international recognition. In the past, their claims for independence were based primarily on the right to national self-determination, historical continuity and claim for a remedial right to secession, based on alleged human-rights violations. Since 2005, official representatives of several de facto states have repeatedly emphasised the importance of democracy promotion in their political entities. A possible explanation of this phenomenon dwells in the belief that those states which have demonstrated their economic viability and promote the organization of a democratic state should gain their sovereignty. This article demonstrates the so called “democracy-for-recognition strategy” in the case study of Abkhazia. On the basis of the field research in Abkhazia we identify factors that promote, as well as those that obstruct the democratisation process in the country.

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The spatial pattern of voter choice homogeneity in the Nigerian presidential elections of the fourth republic

) Religion -28.642 6.428 53.489 134.399** (15.948) (29.575) (26.875) (25.069) R=.510; R 2 =.260; AR 2 =.168 R=.417; R 2 =.174; AR 2 =.071 R=.522; R 2 =.273; AR 2 =.182 R=.714; R 2 =.510; AR 2 =.449 ** p-value ≤0.01; * p-value ≤0.05; standard error in parenthesis Ihonvbere (1999) argued that the change of heart by the AD to seek the presidential office confused many of its supporters given the AD’s original claim to ideological purity. Thus, AD’s alliance with the APP, which was dubbed the “Abacha Peoples

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Football clubs’ sports performance in the context of their market value and GDP in the European Union regions

1 Introduction There are many studies in the world in the field of sports or football economics, and not only from the geographic point of view. Football is one of the largest sports phenomena currently being debated not only by law but also by the professional public. We can only agree with the claim that professional sport, given its social, cultural and economic significance, is a legitimate area of ​interest for theoretical and empirical researchers ( Dobson and Goddard, 2001 ). These debates are increasingly also pursuing the economic aspect of the

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Settlement Type and Educational Effectiveness of Polish Schools on the Example of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivoideship

education process than the systemic similarities are. This can be interpreted in the context of Anthony Giddens’s theory of structuration. Reproduction of structural qualities of the social world does not allow significant changes, despite intentional efforts ( Giddens, 2003 ). It is also likely to claim that culture as a phenomenon embedded in geographical space and traditions (which are very closely related to each other) is the basis of resistance to changes in education (see: Szymańska, 2013 ; Schulz, 1980 ). This would mean that all attempts to implement systemic

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Climate change threats to a floral wedding: Threats of shifting phenology to the emerging South African wedding industry

that they have “a love for outside functions”. Couple D states that nature “played a huge role” in their relationship, because they are ‘nature lovers and adventurous people’, which speaks to their values and experiences. Client B claims that “nature is [a] place that we feel most in touch with our true selves”. Couple E states it was “important to [the couple]” that the presence of natural features (i.e. a garden) “soften” the hardness of their urban wedding located in Johannesburg, at the Johannesburg Garden Venue. As mentioned above, Client D specifically booked

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