people living elsewhere) a problem.
From an economic perspective, the Randstad is made up of two distinctive parts, usually referred to as the “noordvleugel” (northern wing, comprising the regions of Amsterdam and Utrecht) and the “zuidvleugel” (southern wing, the regions of Rotterdam and The Hague). These two parts have developed at different speeds: a strong economic performance in the “noordvleugel”, while the “zuidvleugel” is economically trailing behind ( Ministerie van Economische Zaken 2003 ). Some experts claim that national investments
movements of the various populations affected.
Naturally the hurried consultation of famous architects carried out in the media spotlight did nothing to facilitate these processes. How else can we explain how the project has run aground, and the claims and counterclaims and the fears for its future that are currently being relayed by residents’ groups and the press?
Conclusion: criticism and new developments
The scale of the recent changes in urban planning procedures and practices in France makes it impossible to draw definitive conclusions as yet. However
Stefan Greiving, Mark Fleischhauer, Timo Tarvainen, Philipp Schmidt-Thomé and Jaana Jarva
the Natura 2000 Network and others for buffer zones). An explicit spatial planning dimension can be stated whenever the implementation of an environmental policy might lead to a conflict, duplication or to coherence with spatial development goals and/or spatial planning policies (this distinction is rather academic, but it shall be mentioned here for analytical reasons) and might finally in so doing influence spatial structures.
By looking at these policies, specific differences in the spatial dimension of the respective policy claims can be observed:
). Those factors have created ‘a reality in which living in a block of flats was a dream for the majority of Poles, regardless of their social status’ ( Lewicka 2004 in Szafrańska 2014 ), and narratives of the informants confirm these claims.
‘Before she got this apartment where I live now, my grandmother used to live in a village. They had no sewage, no central heating but I honestly think she exaggerated about no electricity. Moving to the new apartment with the balcony and central heating system, for her, was a paradise. My grandpa, however, never liked it and I
This article deals with the Matrix theory of subjectivity, gaze, and desire by feminist scholar Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger. Matrixial framework is explored in comparison to Lacanian psychoanalysis. The essay denotes the differences between split Lacanian model of the subject and Matrixial subjectivity based on plurality and continuity. I argue that Lacanian model which grounds the subject in fundamental lack and loss of corporal reality is insufficient for explaining specifically feminine experience in terms of temporality and collective memory, whereas the Matrix theory provides a conceptual apparatus for positive female identification and alliances between the past and the present. Ettinger’s Matrixial model is applied in the analysis of the 2012 video The Meeting by contemporary Lithuanian artist Kristina Inčiūraitė. I claim that the mode of desire in The Meeting is based on Matrixial gaze, which allows to formulate memory as co-created by two partners who share archaic knowledge of the Real, grounded in common relation to female sexual difference and intrauterine condition. Therefore, the article interprets the imagery of the town of Svetlogorsk in the video as coemerged mental images that affect each of the partners. I conclude that the Matrix theory overcomes the phallocentrism of classical psychoanalysis, allowing to reformulate the subject in terms of connectivity, compassion, and abilities to process Other’s trauma through positive cultural change.
of local democracy as well as a way to improve the legitimacy of decisions leading to more socially acceptable and sustainable planning outcomes.
The principal of public participation in planning is generally accepted in most Western countries ( Caves 1992 ; Curry 2012 ; Pawlowska 2018 ) yet, in marked contrast to the rhetoric of public participation, concerns have been voiced over the effectiveness of the process in practice (Cook & Kathari 2001). As M. Aitken (2010: 249) observed, ‘projects or decision making processes which make claims to being participatory
Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
effects on the society, has been carried out by many disciplines, including sociology, anthropology, architecture, geography, psychology, criminology, arts, urban planning, and others. In general, opinions among researchers are divided, whether the application of graffiti should be viewed as an art or as a crime. For example, G. C. Stowers (1997) claims graffiti to be an art form. In contrast, M. Halsey & A. Young (2002 : 165) associate graffiti with the aspect of vandalism and define graffiti as ‘both art and crime’, and G. Vanderveen & G. Van Eijk (2015) consider
Bank involvement in transport delivery, in 2015, National Treasury’s City Support Program, a unit of Treasury tasked with accelerating decentralization and devolution, signed a RAS to last for 5 years (interview 11, Washington DC, 12/2015). Bank officials understand their responsibility as distinct from ITDP or Embarq, agencies they describe as having a pivotal agenda to push BRT, instead calling their assistance a form of ‘unbiased support’. They claim that South Africa ‘knew that the World Bank had some technical expertise from our prior visits there and they knew
evaluation. This contribution can positively stimulate sponsors and practitioners to transfer and replicate the methodology to other participatory processes and other contexts. In line with the claim for the systematisation of methods of evaluation of citizen participation, this article is intended to contribute to making progress towards the establishment of a theory of ‘what works best when’ or, at least, an approximate attempt at that.
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (SFRH/BPD/109406/2015); Department of Local Housing and Development of
seems to be free of any ideology. The authors of the McKinsey report compare Smart Cities’ tools to Adam Smith’s ‘invisible hand’ claiming that thanks to numerous individual decisions aiming at maximising personal benefits and based on the data provided by smart tools, the city can significantly improve its functioning as well as, and in consequence, the quality of life ( McKinsey Global Institute 2018 : 1). Just like the free market, the Smart City transforms individual benefits into benefits and positive change for all. Yet, in a similar manner to the free market