Theodora Benedek, Monica Marton Popovici and Dietmar Glogar
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6. Dworschak M. Is extracorporeal cardiopulmonaryresuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest superior compared with conventional resuscitation? Crit Care Med. 2013;41:1365-6. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31828044c0.
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A satisfactory neurologic outcome is the key factor for survival in patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD), however this is highly dependent on the haemodynamic status. Short term cardiopulmonary resuscitation and regained consciousness on the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is indicative of a better prognosis. The evaluation and treatment of SCD triggering factors and of underlying acute and chronic diseases will facilitate prevention and lower the risk of cardiac arrest. Long term CPR and a prolonged unconscious status after ROSC, in the Intensive Care Units or Coronary Care Units, indicates the need for specific treatment and supportive therapy including efforts to prevent hyperthermia. The prognosis of these patients is unpredictable within the first seventy two hours, due to unknown responses to therapeutic management and the lack of specific prognostic factors. Patients in these circumstances require the highest level of intensive care and aetiology driven treatment without any delay, independently of their coma state. Current guidelines sugest the use of multiple procedures in arriving at a diagnosis and prognosis of these critical cases.
associated with an increase in proportion of emergency crew–witnessed cases and bystander cardiopulmonaryresuscitation. Circulation. 2008;118:389-396. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.734137.
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Ali Ekber Atas, Atilla Sarac, Adem Dirican, Nazlı Topbası, Tugce Uzar, Ladan Rastgar, Pankina Ekaterina and Sevket Ozkaya
Background: Mortality rates due to massive pulmonary embolism (PE) are much higher than estimated. Although thrombolytic therapy is controversial, it can be a life-saving procedure and can be safely used in patients with massive PE.
Study aim: We aimed to share the results of thrombolytic treatment in patients with massive PE.
Material and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 72 patients with PE admitted between January 2010 and April 2018 to the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, VM Medicalpark Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey. The data of patients who received thrombolytic treatment were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: The female to male ratio was 24/48, with a mean age of 62.7 ± 12.6 (minimum 27, maximum 88) years. The diagnosis of massive PE was established with echocardiography in all patients and was confirmed via pulmonary CT angiography in 45 patients (62.5%) who presented an appropriate clinical status for this imaging technique. The most common symptoms were dyspnea (90.3%), chest pain (83.3%), and syncope (40.2%). The S1Q3T3 electrocardiography pattern was noted in 82% of patients, who rapidly recovered after thrombolytic therapy. Cardiopulmonary arrest was seen in 25 patients (37.2%), and thrombolytic treatment was administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 18% (n = 13) of patients. The survival rate was 30.7% (n = 4) in patients with cardiopulmonary arrest who received thrombolytic treatment in the emergency room. The complications of rt-PA treatment included minor hemorrhages in 6.4% (n = 5), major hemorrhages in 2.7% (n = 2), and allergic reactions in 1.3% (n = 1) of patients. None of the patients had deceased as a complication of thrombolytic treatment. The overall mortality rate was 26.2% (n = 19), and 12.5% (n = 9) of the patients have died in first 24 hours after thrombolysis.
Conclusions: We concluded that the risk factors, ECG, and echocardiography are key indicators for the suspicion of massive PE in patients with hemodynamic shock. Based on our experience, early thrombolytic therapy is a life-saving intervention in patients with diagnosed and/or suspected massive PE.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the most severe conditions encountered in the emergency department (ED) and one of the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients presenting with hemodynamic instability, right ventricular dysfunction, or necessitating cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The early recognition and treatment of PE is essential, as many studies demonstrated that mortality rates drop significantly if adequate therapy is administered from the early stages. The aim of this update is to summarize the various patterns of PE presentations in the ED.
Andreea Barcan, Istvan Kovacs, Ciprian Blendea, Marius Orzan and Monica Chitu
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Dan Păsăroiu, Zsolt Parajkó, Noémi Mitra and Diana Opincariu
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Adrian Corneliu Iancu, Mihaela Ioana Dregoesc, Aurelia Solomoneanu and Theodora Benedek
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