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Efficient increase in the content of available forms of elements in soil depends not only on their total content introduced to soil material, but also on the technology of its application. Technology consists of techniques and date of application as well as agronomic practices aimed at maintaining proper conditions for element transformations. The method of application of waste elemental sulfur and ground phosphate rock was assessed. Doses of 20 and 40 mg S as well as 40 and 80 mg P·kg−1d.m. were added to medium soil; 30 and 60 mg S as well as 60 and 120 mg P·kg−1d.m. were added to heavy soil. The soil samples were collected on the day of application of materials and after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The soil pH value decreased during the incubation. An increase in available sulfur content was observed in both soils after elemental sulfur application; the sulfur content in the medium soil depended on the dose of waste. The soils with the addition of a double dose of ground phosphate rock had the highest content of available phosphorus.


Sulphur and nitrogen deposition were calculated with the FRAME model and used to assess the exceedances of the critical loads for acidification and eutrophication of natural ecosystems in Poland. For the first time two tools: the FRAME and SONOX models were used jointly to provide information on ecosystems at risk. The FRAME model obtained close agreement with available sulphur and nitrogen wet deposition measurements. The total mass of sulphur deposited in Poland in year 2008 was estimated as 292 Gg S. Total deposition of nitrogen (oxidized + reduced) is 389 Gg N. 11% of the ecosystems in Poland were calculated to be at risk of acidification due to deposition of sulphur and nitrogen. In the case of eutrophication, over 95% of terrestrial ecosystems are at risk due to the large deposition of nitrogen compounds.