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cosmopolitanism also acknowledges the material conditions of the ‘other’ and aims to alleviate discrepancies in social and economic suffering and justice between the global North and South.
Citizenship has a persistent materiality related to its legal and formal status, whereby it has traditionally acted as a mechanism of inclusion and exclusion from the national polity and the rights and protections associated with access. For example, the politically vexing and contested issue of undocumented arrivals (either those fleeing persecution and seeking asylum or those pushed by
The chapter on immigration offers a thumbnail sketch of the impact of newcomers on understandings of “us” versus “them” in both matters of law and in terms of public opinion. It covers a lot of historical ground, not doing so in sequential order, but rather moving back and forth in time, the recurring message being that immigration policies have been primarily shaped by the tension between political and economic considerations. At times, it muddles the distinction between labour migrants and refugees/asylum seekers and in one instance fails to appreciate the
certificate and, because they have never been registered, it is difficult for them to prove their nationality and, consequently, it is difficult to obtain citizenship and rights to a passport ( Manby, 2009 ). This issue of exclusion raises difficult problems not only for stateless people, refugees and asylum seekers but also for legal labour migrants who are denizens but without the rights of citizens. Modern citizenship theory has suggested that we need a battery of new concepts and approaches to understand migrants who enjoy only limited rights in a global labour market
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) cultural and creative sectors: creative economy and innovation; and (4) promotion of cultural diversity and culture in EU’s external relations and mobility (Council of the European Union, 2014). The Council of the EU in 2015 reaffirmed the centrality and priority of ICD in the context of developing a “comprehensive strategy” to address “the migration and refugee crisis”. They acknowledged that “culture and the arts have their role to play in the process of integrating refugees who will be granted asylum status as they can help them to better understand their new
events”, such as cultural festivals at Holi and Diwali, or cricket tournaments in the case of high-skilled Indians (see also Bal 2012 ).
Like many other European states, the Netherlands has limited the migration of unskilled labour and asylum seekers, while encouraging skilled and entrepreneurial migration. Most of the recent Indian migration to the Netherlands fall into the latter category. The number of Indian migrants living in the Netherlands has increased significantly since the mid-1990s, from 9,476 in 1996 to 32,682 in 2016. CBS. ‘Bevolkings: generatie