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yo-yo intermittent recovery test: Physiological response, reliability, and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 2003; 35: 697-705 Larsson P. Global positioning system and sport-specific testing. Sports Med , 2003; 33: 1093-1101 MacLeod H, Morris J, Nevill A, Sunderland C. The validity of a non-differential global positioning system for assessing player movement patterns in field hockey. J Sports Sci, 2009; 27: 121-128 Mallo J, Navarro E, García-Aranda JM, Helsen W. Activity profile of top-class association football referees in relation to fitness-test performance

The present study aimed to analyze the interaction and main effects of deliberate practice experience and smallsided game format (3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 plus goalkeepers) on the offensive performance of young soccer players. Twentyeight U-15 male players were divided into 2 groups according to their deliberate practice experience in soccer (i.e., years of experience in federation soccer): Non-Experienced (age: 12.84 ± 0.63 years) and Experienced (age: 12.91 ± 0.59 years; experience: 3.93 ± 1.00 years). The experimental protocol consisted of 3 independent sessions separated by one-week intervals. In each session both groups performed each small-sided game during 10 minutes interspersed with 5 minutes of passive recovery. To characterize the recorded offensive sequences we used the Offensive Sequences Characterization System, which includes performance indicators previous applied in other studies. No interaction effects on the offensive performance were found between both factors. Non-parametric MANOVA revealed that the factor “experience level” had a significant effect (p<0.05) on performance indicators that characterize the development of offensive sequences, especially in 6 vs. 6 + GKs. While experienced players produced longer offensive sequences with greater ball circulation between them, the non-experienced participants performed faster offensive sequences with a predominance of individual actions. Furthermore, significant differences were observed (p<0.05) in the development and finalization of offensive sequences within each group, when comparing small-sided game formats. Evidence supports that small-sided games can serve several purposes as specific means of training. However, the manipulation of game format should always consider the players’ individual constraints.


The aim of the present study was to compare combined small‐sided game (SSG) and high‐intensity interval training (HIT) with different order. Twenty‐one semi‐professional soccer players were divided into two groups: SSG+HIT (n = 10) and HIT+SSG (n = 11), and underwent similar four‐week training programs. Players completed the 30‐15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30‐15IFT) before and after the experiment; maximum speed (VIFT) was recorded. During the experiment, seven sessions of SSG (3 vs 3) and HIT (15ʺ‐15ʺ with 95‐100% VIFT) were implemented. Weekly accumulated training loads for both groups during the experiment were similar. Moderate improvements in VIFT were observed in both SSG+HIT (+6.2%, 90% confidence limits, [CL] 4.6; 7.7 and Effect Size, [ES] +0.96) and HIT+SSG (+6.9%, 90% CL 4.6; 9.3 and ES +0.97) groups. Between‐group difference in changes of VIFT was trivial (+0.7%, 90% CL ‐1.8; 3.3 and ES +0.11). Combining SSG and HIT in different order elicited the same enhancement in high‐intensity intermittent performance in soccer players.

, Rezaee M, Gholami A. The Difference in Visual Skills Between Expert Versus Novice Soccer Referees. J Hum Kinet, 2009; 22: 15-20 Gilis B, Helsen W, Catteeuw P, Van Roie E, Wagemans J. Interpretation and application of the offside law by expert assistant referees: Perception of spatial positions in complex dynamic events on and off the field. J Sport Sci, 2009; 27: 551 - 563 Gilis B, Helsen W, Catteeuw P, Wagemans J. Offside Decisions by Expert Assistant Referees in Association Football: Perception and Recall of Spatial Positions in Complex Dynamic Events. J Exp Psychol

References Pollard R. Home advantage in soccer: variations in its magnitude and a literature review of the inter-related factors associated with its existence. J Sport Behav, 2006a; 29: 169-89 Pollard R. Worldwide regional variations in home advantage in association football. J Sport Sci, 2006b; 24: 231-240 Pollard R, da Silva CD, Nísio CM. Home advantage in football in Brazil: differences between teams and the effects of distance traveled. Brazilian J Soccer Sci , 2008; 1: 3-10 Pollard R, Gómez MA. Home advantage in football in South-West Europe: Long

References French National Agency for Food Safety, Environment and Work (ANSES). Second national survey on individual alimentary consumption. INCA2) (2006-2007), 2009. Available at: ; accessed on 15.09.2014 Bangsbo J, Norregaard L, Thorso F. Activity profile of competition soccer. Can J Sport Sci , 1991; 16(2): 110-116 Catterall C, Reilly T, Atkinson G, Coldwells A. Analysis of the work rates and heart rates of association football referees. Br J Sports Med , 1993; 27(3): 193-196 Chaput JP

-308 Gréhaigne JF, Marchal D, Duprat E. Regaining possession of the ball in the defensive area in soccer. In: Science and Football IV. Eds: Spinks W, Reilly T, Murphy A. London: E. & F. N. Spon, 112-120; 2002 Lago C. The influence of match location, quality of opposition, and match status on possession strategies in professional association football. J Sports Sci, 2009; 27(13): 1463-1469 Lago C, Martín R. Determinants of possession of the ball in soccer. J Sport Sci, 2007; 25(9): 969-974 Lago-Ballesteros J, Lago-Peñas C, Rey E. The effect of playing tactics and situational

, Marmeleira J, Davids K. The Ecological Dynamics of 1v1 Sub-Phases in Association Football. The Open Sports Sciences Journal , 2010; 3: 16-18 Handford C, Davids K, Bennett S, Button, C. Skill acquisition in sport: Some applications of an evolving practice ecology. Journal of Sports Sciences , 1997; 15: 621-640 McGarry T. Soccer as a Dynamical System: Some Theoretical Considerations. In Science and Football V . Eds: Reilly T, Cabri J, Araújo D. Oxon: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 570-579; 2005 McGarry T, Anderson D, Wallace S, Hughes M, Franks I. Sport competition as

, Cunha SA. Quantitative analysis of futsal players' organization on the court. Rev Port Cien Desp, 2011; 11(2): 105-108 Okihara K, Kan A, Shiokawa M, Choi CS, Deguchi T, Matsumoto M, Higashikawa Y. Compactness as a strategy in a soccer match in relation to a change in offence and defense. J Sports Sci, 2004; 22(6): 515 Silva P, Aguiar P, Duarte R, Davids K, Araújo D, Garganta J. Effects of pitch size and skill level on tactical behaviours of Association Football players during small-sided and conditioned games. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching

in a professional football club setting. J Sports Sci, 2009; 27(11): 1153-1158 Musch J, Grondin S. Unequal competition as an impediment to personal development: A review of the relative age effect in sport. Dev Rev, 2011; 21: 147-167, doi:10.1006/drev.2000.0516 Pérez-Jiménez I, Pain MTG. Relative age effect in Spanish association football: Its extent and implications for wasted potential. J Sports Sci, 2008; 26(10): 995-1003 Raschner C, Müller L, Hildebrandt C. The role of a relative age effect in the first winter Youth Olympic Games in 2012. Br J Sports Med