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Financial accounting information plays an important role in assessing and forecasting firms’ financial performance. But besides that, there are other external factors affecting the performance of firms, such as economic and financial crises, which cause imbalances over the economy and affects the business environment. Thus, based on financial statements data, in this paper, the determinants of financial performance are examined, and the impact of a financial crisis on these factors is analyzed, using the fixed and random effects panel estimators. A sample of non-financial firms from European countries considering annual data for the period of 2006 to 2015 was used for this research. The results achieved by panel data analysis show that a crisis exerts a significant positive effect over financial performance as well as liquidity, assets turnover, and labor productivity, meaning that firms tend to put in greater efforts to maintain financial performance in the face of a crisis. Financial performance is significantly and negatively influenced by leverage independently of the crisis effect, showing return on assets to be lower than the average interest rate.


For Serbia the efforts to attract investments from abroad came to the fore with the beginning of transition process. The process of ownership transformation in Serbia most often implied foreign direct investment inflows, because it included participation of foreign investors in purchase of domestic companies that had been the subject of privatisation. The subject of research in the paper is Serbian experience in attracting foreign capital into local export companies with special emphasis on their profitability. Aim of the paper is to estimate the profitability of leading Serbian exporters financed by foreign direct investments, i.e. to determine whether and to what extent foreign direct investments contributed to the increase of return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE), as basic profitability measures. The results show that, in the case of Serbian exporters, the profitability varies, both per companies and per individual years. There is no general conclusion that foreign direct investments contributed to the ROA increase. On the contrary, ROA values significantly varied during this period. Either enormous increase or enormous decrease could be observed. The same goes for ROE values.


The relationship between liquidity and profitability is one of the most interesting topics in the corporate finance research. Having in mind that the pharmaceutical industry is one of the most competitive sectors globally and that its substantial investments in research and development make this industry a key asset for a country’s economic well-being, this paper examines the liquidity-profitability trade off in pharmaceutical sector of RNM. The empirical research engages the secondary annual financial report data of the two pharmaceutical companies listed on Macedonian Stock Exchange (MSE) over the period from 2006-2016. Current ratio (CR), quick ratio (QR) and cash ratio (CAR) were used as measures of liquidity while return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) were used to measure profitability as a dependent variable. The statistical tests used to evaluate the effects of liquidity on profitability involved descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis. The findings suggest that there is no significant relationship between profitability and liquidity determinants of the listed North Macedonian pharmaceutical firms. Regarding practical implications, these findings can help managers overcome dilemmas with respect to the liquidity and profitability tradeoff. Furthermore, this study contributes to the existing research base in this field and represents one of the pioneer attempts in the case of RNM. The results gained from the research are very important for companies themselves, but they can also serve as a starting point for future research to eliminate financial and other corporate issues related to the relationship between profitability and liquidity determinants.


The main motive of business operations of any bank is to achieve the highest profit possible and utilise it to increase dividends to shareholders, as well as to create conditions to increase their financial and credit potential by reinvesting in shares. The most important quality indicator of a loan portfolio is the share of non-performing loans to total operating assets and liabilities. In the first quarter of 2013, a trend of increasing non-performing loans in the legal entities sector increased by 2.6%, while there was stagnation with the population, i.e. slight decrease. The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of the global financial crisis on the movement tendency of non-performing loans in the banking market in B&H, and their interdependence with the movement of profitability indicators by a simple regression equation.


This paper examines the credit risk and capital adequacy of the 567 rural banks in the Philippines to investigate how both variables affect bank profitability. Using the Arellano-Bond estimator, we found out that credit risk has a negative and statistically significant relationship with profitability. However, empirical analysis showed that capital adequacy has no significant impact on the profitability of rural banks in the Philippines. It is therefore necessary for the rural banks to examine more deeply if capital infusion would result in higher profitability than increasing debts. The study also implies that it is imperative for the banks to understand which risk factors have greater impact on their financial performance and use better risk-adjusted performance measurement to support their strategies. Rural banks should establish credit risk management that defines the process from initiation to approval of loans, taking into consideration the sound credit risk management practices issued by regulatory bodies. Moreover, rural banks need to enhance internal control measures to ensure the strict implementation of internal processes on lending operations.

. Daubechies, I., (1992). Ten lectures on wavelets. SIAM, Philadelphia. 19. Diebold, F.X., & Yilmaz, K., (2009). Measuring financial asset return and volatility spillovers, with application to global equity markets. The Economic Journal 119, 158-171. 20. Diebold, F.X., & Yilmaz, K., (2012). Better to give than to receive: Predictive directional measurement of volatility spillovers. International Journal of Forecasting , 28(1): 57–66. 21. Diks, C., & Panchenko, V., (2005). A

Do macroeconomic factors matter for stock returns? Evidence from estimating a multifactor model on the Croatian market

Factor models observe the sensitivity of an asset return as a function of one or more factors. This paper analyzes returns on fourteen stocks of the Croatian capital market in the period from January 2004 to October 2009 using inflation, industrial production, interest rates, market index and oil prices as factors. Both the direction and strength of the relation between the change in factors and returns are investigated. The analyses included fourteen stocks and their sensitivities to factors were estimated. The results show that the market index has the largest statistical significance for all stocks and a positive relation to returns. Interest rates, oil prices and industrial production also marked a positive relation to returns, while inflation had a negative influence. Furthermore, cross-sectional regression with the estimated sensitivities used as independent variables and returns in each month as dependent variables is performed. This analysis resulted in time series of risk premiums for each factor. The most important factor affecting stock prices proved to be the market index, which had a positive risk premium. A statistically significant factor in 2004 and 2008 was also inflation, marking a negative risk premium in 2004 and a positive one in 2008. The remaining three factors have not shown as significant.


The main objective of this research paper is to examine whether the practice of corporate governance (CG) measured by the CGI-Crobank® index is significant for the explanation of variations in the performance of Croatian banks measured by the return on assets, return on equity, interest margin, margin of non-interest income, operating expenses margin, and by Tobin’s Q for the observed period from 2011 to 2015. The research is made on Croatian banks that form the CGI-Crobank® index using the data and information from annual questionnaires of CG codex, primarily to ensure objectivity, standardization and comparability. The goal of the literature analysis was to show present findings in the areas of corporate reporting and its impact on CG. Results obtained in the research indicate that a well implemented practice of corporate governance measured by the CGI-Crobank® index have influence on the variations in the performance of Croatian banks measured by Tobin’s Q and financial indicators.

References Athey S., Bagwell K. and Sanchirico C. (2004), “Collusion and Price Rigidity”, Review of Economic Studies , 71(2), pp. 317-349. Chan, J. and A. Grant (2016), “Modeling Energy Price Dynamics: GARCH versus Stochastic Volatility”, Energy Economics , 54, 182-189 David, Antonio & Mills, Marshall & El Harrak, Mohamed & Ocampos, Lorraine. (2011). “Oil Spill(over)s: Linkages in Petroleum Product Pricing Policies in West African Countries”, IMF Working Papers . 11. 10.1353/jda.2014.0024. Diebold, F. and K. Yilmaz (2009), “Measuring Financial Asset Return and

Markets. European Central Bank, Working Paper Series No. 1113. Bianconi, M., Yoshino, J. A., & Sousa, M. O. (2013). BRIC and the U.S. Financial Crisis: An Empirical Investigation of Stock and Bond Markets. Emerging Markets Review , 14, 76-109. Click, R., & Plummer, M. (2005). Stock Market Integration in ASEAN after the Asian Financial Crisis. Journal of Asian Economics , 16(1), 5-28. Diebold, F. X., & Yilmaz, K. (2009). Measuring Financial Asset Return and Volatility Spillovers, with Application to Global Equity Markets. The Economic Journal , 119, 158–71. Friedman