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Correlation between Body Mass Index and abdominal circumference in Belgian adults: a cross-sectional study


Introduction. Traditionally, the body mass index (BMI) is used to describe anthropometric measurements and to assess weight-related health risks. However, the abdominal circumference (AC) might also be a valuable parameter to estimate this risk. This study aims to describe an association between the BMI and the AC.

Material and Methods. Participants were recruited during the Brussels Food Fair in 2014. They completed a questionnaire with their medical history, and health related parameters such as blood pressure, weight, height and AC were measured.

Results. In total, 705 participants were analyzed. Men had a mean BMI of 27.3 kg/m2 and a mean AC of 98.7 cm. Women had a mean BMI of 26.0 kg/m2 and a mean AC of 88.2 cm. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the BMI and the AC was 0.91 for men and 0.88 for women. There was a strong positive correlation between the BMI and the AC. In the identification of patients at high risk for weight-related diseases, the use of the AC identified more patients than the BMI. Especially more women were ranking in a higher risk class with the AC than with the BMI classification. Both the BMI as well as the AC identified most diseases with an increased relative risk.

Conclusion. There is a strong correlation between the BMI and the AC. There are too few arguments to prefer the use of AC above the BMI to detect people at high risk for weight-related diseases.

Open access
Immunohistochemical Aspects of Cell Death in Diabetic Nephropathy

Introduction. Diabetes Mellitus causes ultrastructural changes triggered by partially clarified cellular mechanisms. Since cell death is an important mechanism in the appearance and progression of diabetic nephropathy, we studied alteration of several markers of apoptotic pathways signaling in renal tissue of diabetic or prediabetic patients.

Methods. We analyzed 48 human kidney tissue samples divided into two study groups: the research group (43 renal tissue samples from diabetic or prediabetic patients), and the control group (5 renal tissue samples from patients without diabetes). Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of Bcl-2, APAF-1, CD-95 and Caspase-9 in the renal cortical structures. Statistical analysis was also performed (significance level P<0.05).

Results. We found a variable expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 with a decrease of Bcl-2 expression in diabetes. The control samples render evident intensely positive immunostaining for CD-95. In diabetes and diabetic nephropathy, there was positive immunostaining for APAF-1 at tubular cell level. Nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity for Caspase-9 was more frequently recorded as kidney damage progresses. APAF-1 and Caspase-9 positivity are arguments for an intrinsic apoptotic mechanism of cell death in diabetic nephropathy.

Conclusion. The mechanisms of apoptotic cell death identified in diabetic kidney samples prove that Bcl-2, CD-95, APAF-1 and Caspase-9 represent reliable markers of cell death in human renal tissue. Our results support the hypothesis that apoptosis is a pathogenic and initiator mechanism of renal remodeling in diabetic kidney disease.

Open access
Multiple Intracerebral Hemorrhages in an Old Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis


A 78-year-old Caucasian man was admitted in the Department of Neurology for visual disturbances, started two days before. The next day the patient experienced headache, fever and gait disturbances. He had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, an ischemic stroke 13 years ago, longstanding seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (17 years), polynodular goiter, right ischio-pubian fracture and right femoral vein thrombosis a year ago due to a car accident, since he is treated with oral anticoagulants associated to antiaggregant, hypotensors, statin and oral antidiabetics. The neurologic examination had evidenced nuchal rigidity, left homonymous hemianopsia, left central facial palsy, ataxia of the inferior limbs with wide-based gait, achilean reflexes abolished bilaterally, bilaterally abolished plantar reflexes, ideomotor apraxia, dysarthria, hypoprosexia, and preserved consciousness patient. A non-contrast cerebral CT scan had shown right temporal and parieto-occipital intraparenchymatous hemorrhages, a right frontal sequelar lesion, multiple old lacunar infarcts, cortical atrophy. Laboratory findings included an inflammatory syndrome, absence of rheumatoid arthritis positive serology, normal coagulogram, an elevated proteinuria. The cerebral IRM performed on the seventh day of hospitalisation was suggestive for subacute right parietal hemorrhage, old cerebral infarction in the right anterior cerebral artery area, old lacunar infarcts and cerebral atrophy. The anticoagulant and antiaggregant treatment was stopped after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure occurred. Antiedematous, hypotensor, anticonvulsivant, beta-blocker, and symptomatic treatment was started, while the antidiabetic treatment was continued. All symptoms remitted. Arguments for amyloid angiopathy in our patient are previous non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke and a chronic inflammatory disease-rheumatoid arthritis in his personal medical history.

Open access