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The spatial pattern of voter choice homogeneity in the Nigerian presidential elections of the fourth republic

Takyi et al. (2010) inform us that perhaps in a country of Muslims and Christians, the vote choice of people professing different faiths may differ significantly. Ichino and Nathan (2013) note that the theory of instrumental voting has been used to characterise ethnic voting patterns in various studies in Africa. The argument, however, relates more broadly to the sociological model or what others call structural theories of voting, which emphasise that voters tend to support candidates and parties that are of their sociocultural background ( Heywood, 2007 ). In

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Determinants of voter turnout in Nsukka Council of Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria

access to networks, via which people can be drafted for political actions. Among these resources, civic skills are the most vital for swaying political participation. This argument was developed in the Civic Voluntarism Model (CVM) as expounded by Verba et al. (1995) and Putnam (2000) . In the CVM, the gaining of public skills occurs in non-political institutions, such as religious institutions, workplaces and voluntary organisations ( Verba et al. 1995 ). The study draws on these arguments on political participation and includes variables measuring individuals

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US Global Cities as Centres of Attraction of Foreign TNCs

Detroit. The fact that Washington is the capital of the US presents a key argument for the city to serve as a major corporate hub. Many foreign TNCs open representative offices in Washington to establish public relations, receive government contracts, or enter into direct interaction with government agencies. For example, the initial task of the SAP branch was to commence cooperating with local government and non-governmental organisations. Due to geographical location and deep economic and cultural ties, Miami acquired a reputation as the unofficial capital of Latin

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Selected aspects of water and sewage management in Poland in the context of sustainable urban development

.8% of Poland’s total population, and as much as 54.5% of the total urban population. The work assumes the hypothesis that positive changes occurred in water and sewage management in the examined cities. The main argument for such a hypothesis was the requirement in Poland to adapt the water and sewage infrastructure to EU requirements. 2 Methods and materials This work uses data from the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistics Office (Bank Danych Lokalnych Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego [BDL GUS]). They were used in the attempt to develop a summative index

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Public spending mechanisms and gross domestic product (GDP) growth in the agricultural sector (1970–2016): Lessons for Nigeria from agricultural policy progressions in China

positively to economic growth, through multiplier effects on aggregate demand. But government consumption may crowd out private investment, dampen economic stimulus in the short run and reduce capital accumulation in the long run ( Coady and Fan, 2008 ). Economy theory of public expenditures is classified into two: productive if they are included as arguments in private production functions, and unproductive if they are not ( Barro and Sala-I-Martin, 1992 ). This categorisation implies that productive expenditures have a direct effect upon the rate of economic growth

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Capacities of African-oriented Polish NGOs: a quantitative approach

local entities for further engagement with the African region is a serious advantage over other Central and Eastern European countries ( Kopiński, 2012 ). The results show that relationships between secular and religious hubs are intermittent. Polish religious organisations involved in state-funded development aid are different from secular ones for two reasons. Firstly, contrary to the majority of secular organisations, many missionaries have had long-standing positions in recipient countries, which only reinforces the above-mentioned argument presented by Kopiński

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Optimal Spatial Allocation of Labour Force and Employment Protection Legislation (EPL)

)\times \,\text{Max}\,\mathbf{E}\left[ N\,LI\left( v*\left( p \right) \right)\left| EP\,L=P \right. \right]= \\=N\,LI\left( v*\left( p \right) \right)\times P\left[ N\,LI\left( v*\left( p1 \right) \right)\left| EP\,L=P \right. \right] \\\end{matrix}$$ In essence, the variable to maximise is a composition of a multivariate function, which involve two functions as an argument – the maximum NLI and the probability of obtaining it. Additionally, such a probability is determined by the level of employment protection (Blanchard, 2005; Pissarides, 2000 ) while the maximum NLI

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Economic and functional changes in the largest villages in Poland at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century

transformation trends in the studied group of units. Two arguments prove that approach inappropriate: 1) the use of non-homogeneous data sources and the consequent composite methods of measurement may lead to ambiguous or uncertain conclusions, and 2) the impact of diverse factors in the form of profound political, economic, cultural and technological transformations, or even changes in social mentality, throughout the three decades separating the studies may make the real transformation trends appear different from the assumptions. Wójcik (2013) , relying mostly on the

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Inclusiveness of Urban Land Administration in the City of Lusaka, Zambia

findings show that 73.8 percent and 61.1 percent of the respondents in recognised and legalised settlements respectively were of the view that the procedure is long ( Figure 9 ). In addition, Mulolwa (2016) notes that obtaining planning permission in Zambia exceeds 90 days. Good governance advocates attribute the lengthy duration of getting planning permission to the multiplicity of entities involved and tedious procedures. One of the respondents reinforced the above argument by adding that: Figure 9 Responses on Duration of Obtaining Planning Permission (Source

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Housing in multiple occupation and studentification in Johannesburg

and real-estate agents. Hubbard (2008) reinforces the notion that multiple stakeholders are involved in the production of studentified space. Smith and Hubbard (2014) state that the production of student housing has become part of neoliberal urban policies focused on capital (and investors) constantly seeking new markets for profit realisation. This parallels Chatterton and Holland’s (2002) argument that student lifestyle is being commodified, packaged and sold. Chatterton (2010 :512) explains as follows: “the student has come to represent a monetarised and

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