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A Semantic Analysis of Personal Names in Datooga Society

Abstract

Naming can sometimes be associated with particular situations or someone’s birth. This study intends to find out the association between Datooga names and socio-cultural backgrounds. The study employs a qualitative research approach, in which case the collected data was subjected to descriptive analysis. Data have been collected from Datooga speaking students studying at the Dar es Salaam University College of Education, through Interviews and Questionnaire. The analysis is based on the Kripke’s three arguments in naming as described by Speaks (2007). The theory explains how naming is achieved with reference to the modal argument, the semantic argument and the epistemic argument. The findings of the study have revealed that in the Datooga society, naming is associated with different phenomena particularly time of birth and prevailing situations, traditions, norms and customs.

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Changing Work Patterns of the Skolt Sámi

Abstract

This article explores changing work patterns in the Skolt Sámi reindeer herding community of Sevettijärvi, northern Finland. As a result of the Second World War, Finland lost the original home territory of the Skolt Sámi to the Soviet Union. The Skolt Sámi of the old Suenjel village moved to the Sevettijärvi area in Finland. In this article I present major changes in three areas of this group’s work patterns: 1) combinations of livelihood; 2) forms of cooperation and reciprocity; 3) social constructions of work situations. The main causes of cultural change in the rein-deer herding community have been the mechanisation of reindeer herding and the centralisation of reindeer ownership. In anthropological studies, traditional forms of behaviour have at times been seen as obstacles to economic development. My argument is different: traditional forms of culture – in this case forms of reciprocity – can increase possibilities for economic development. The research data shows that the centralisation of reindeer ownership has decreased the possibilities for economic development in additional forms of livelihood among Skolt Sámi reindeer herders. The number of herders has decreased and the entrepreneurial collaboration is arranged so that there is less and less traditional reciprocity between separate households.

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The Postpartum Tradition of Sawa Mahina in Rural Punjab, Pakistan

References Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad Saed. 2007. Islam: Questions and Answers - Manners 2. London: MSA Publication Limited. Abel, Sally; Julie Park, David Tipene-Leach, Sitaleki Finau and Michele Lennan. 2001. Infant Care Practices in New Zealand: A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study. - Social Science & Medicine 53 (9): 1135-1148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00408-1. Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A. Aldeeb 1999. Muslims’ Genitalia in the Hands of the Clergy: Religious Arguments about Male and Female Circumcision

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A Life History of the ‘Irish’ Ecotype Tied Stones and Loose Dogs

://www.duchas.ie/en/info/cbe (accessed July 10, 2018). Ó Coileáin, Seán. 1977. Oral or Literary? Some Strands of the Argument. – Studia Hibernica 17/18: 7–35. O’Daly, John. 1876. The Irish Language Miscellany: Being a Selection of Poems by the Munster Bards of the Last Century. Collected and edited by John O’Daly . Dublin: J. O’Daly. Ó hAodha, Nioclás. 1970. Foclóir agus Nótaí do ‘Mo Scéal Féin’ a scríobh an tAthair Peadar Ó Laoghaire . Baile Átha Cliath: Albert Folens. Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. 2004. Dáithí Ó hÓgáin on Storytelling. – Storytellers of Ireland . https

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The Christian Democratic Youth of Slovakia: Christian Legacy, Post-Socialist Memory and the Present Spirit of Capitalism

Abstract

The subject of this case study is the youth political organisation Christian Democratic Youth of Slovakia (KDMS). The first parts of this paper are dedicated to history and the structure of organisation. Latter parts discuss the influence of historical memory on creating the collective discourses of KDMS and its civic engagements, ambitions and activities. The purpose of the paper is also to evaluate the role of religion and secularisation in KDMS agenda and also to discuss the ways how the ´christian heritage´ becames the source for arguments in political debates and opossitely how the christianity could be interpreted in the light of conservative and right oriented socio-economic and political worldview.

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Competitiveness and Research-Oriented Teaching in Romanian Universities: The Neo-Liberal Transformation of the Higher Education System

Abstract

This paper focuses on the recent neo-liberal transformation in the Romanian education system and analyzes the genealogy of a new form of academic governance that has been implemented in higher education institutions in the past decade. It examines the role quality indicators and supplementary funding have played in the gradual embedding and naturalization of neo-liberal disciplinary reforms in universities and the specific quality enhancement policies that aimed at increasing the productivity of academic workers by stimulating the competition among them. The main argument of the paper is that in order to understand the extensive academic management based on scientometrics and recurrent evaluation of academics we need to look at the structural mechanisms that have shaped higher education institutions in accordance with market rules and at the generalization of competitiveness throughout the system in the context of budget cuts and decreasing resources allocated to education.

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The Dimension of Normativity in Informal Social Relations

Abstract

The aim of this article is to discuss the character of regularities occurring in informal social bonds, be they friendships, romantic partnerships, competitions or rivalries. Since Simmel’s work is emblematic for the theme of social norms involved in durable informal bonds, I take his original concept of forms of association as my point of reference. The argument I propose challenges several of Simmel’s assumptions, namely his objectivist stance, his formal sociology and the autopoiesis of systems of reciprocal effects. Based on this critical rereading of Simmel, I introduce the concept of “socially constructed typical bonds” as a more dynamic and versatile alternative to the static patterns of forms of association. By bringing a subjectivist turn (inspired by Berger, Luckmann and Butler) to Simmel’s forms of association, I argue for the recognition of the blurry, diverse and contradictory understandings of the typical social bond as the ground for relational normativity.

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Ethnicity in Space and Everyday Practice: an Outline of a General Framework with Examples from New Mexico

Abstract

Studies of ethnicity have emphasized ethnicity’s social, processual and event-like character. While they have been very successful in explaining change, they have failed to account for the durability and renewed importance of many group identities. We argue that taking into account spatial and embodied dimensions of ethnicity, we can explain continuity without falling back to primordialism and essentialism. The most important spatial factors in explaining the strength of ethnic identities include spatial separation, the built environment, generative processes associated with the built environment, performances and embodied practices, and the linguistic landscape. The article provides an outline for a general framework for the analysis of ethnicity, using examples from New Mexico as illustrations of individual arguments.

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Mapping Deprivation in Rural Areas from Transylvania: Reflections on a Methodological Exercise

Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to present and critically discuss the potentialities and limits of using official data (collected and reported by state-institutions) in order to shed light on consequences of uneven development and measure area deprivation in present-day Romania. Our argumentation is based on a quantitative inquiry at the level of rural communes and small-towns from three counties located in the historical region of Transylvania. It presents the reasons for choosing certain statistical indicators, the construction of composite indexes and the profiles of localities according to their values. We explore the statistical correlations between our indexes and the poverty rates measured for 2002 (CASPIS, 2004), as well as the Local Human Development Index proposed by Sandu (2011) and revised by the World Bank (2014). Unlike other poverty-mapping inquiries, our goal was not to identify compact, segregated and severely impoverished settlements, but to measure the extent of material deprivation at the level of the entire administrative unit. In this way, we refrained from seeing poverty as the problem of a socially (and sometimes spatially) marginalized settlement, and instead defined poverty as a problem of the entire local community, that should be addressed by the local community as a whole. Our data reveals that, after controlling for poverty and local resources, the share of the Roma ethnic minority is a strong statistical predictor of registered unemployment, however, it does not correlate with the frequency of granting social assistance benefits.

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Does Multiculturalism Inhibit Intercultural Dialogue? Evidence from the Antipodes

In recent years, a lively debate has erupted over whether and how interculturalism differs from multiculturalism as a response to cultural diversity (for example, Meer, Modood, & Zapata-Barrero 2016 ; Barrett 2013 ; Meer & Modood 2012 ; Kymlicka 2012 ; Levey 2012 ; Taylor 2012 ; Wieviorka 2012 ; Bouchard 2011 ). An influential argument in this debate is that multiculturalism itself militates against intercultural dialogue (ICD) (for example, Zapata-Barrero 2015 ; Cantle 2012 ; Council of Europe 2008 ). In this article, I want to scrutinise this

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