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Jarmila Novotná, Ľubomír Verbovanec and Ľuboš Török
The main research subject of this study is a teacher. Our goal is to contribute to changes in teacher training in the direction of developing their motivation and creative potential, so that creative personalities of students could be subsequently developed. We chose the methodological concept of a natural developing experiment, in which we study the dynamics of changes in motivation and creativity of student teachers. In the scope of extensive research concept we used various methods to record scores before and after the experiment, such as IMB, DMV, IPOT, WKOPAY and Torrance Figural Test of Creative Thinking. The results were subjected to a quantitative evaluation by means of conventional statistical methods, such as the significance of differences in arithmetic means and index analysis. These were subjected to a qualitative analysis. As a result, conclusions were drawn from the study of future teachers' motivation and creativity. The results have shown significant arguments in favour of aimed and intensive motivational and creative development programmes. As it follows from our findings, interesting also for theories on educational process, the elimination of fear, anxiety, tension and teaching stress can humanise educational environment and also change motives for improving one's creative performance. The goal of our experiment is to contribute to the improvement of undergraduate teacher training and participate in progressive changes in the educational system.
Academic institutions and their professional communities live presently in the times of constant change. Beyond numerous, official amendments within state regulations, also quality and pace of educational change undergo transformations. We observe the change of artefacts and contexts of socio-cultural demands which call for the necessity to reformulate good practices and competencies required in education. The paper is planned to highlight several aspects of change, considered by the author as sensitive to the possibility to personalize academic education: institutional, professional, scientific and simply humane. The intention is to provide a critical look upon academic tutoring and its potentials from the perspective of an academic tutor and tutor’s trainer, as well as a researcher on education. The net of arguments, following the title of this paper, shall be outstretched between research-based, policy-based and the very practice-based nodal points, with my full awareness of the limitations that my insight carries due to the qualitative rather than quantitative type of the presented research. Nevertheless, the paper should bring down the picture of a polyphony of powers that make tutoring a very special, demanding, but top quality form of academic education, which should be supported, recommended and popularized among teachers in order for them to reach their academic excellence.
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The theory of social contract has played - and still plays - an important role in the central stage of political philosophy. The social contract answers the question of the origin of the society. The history of the theory originates in the ancient Greece political philosophy and extends to the recent years. However, the foundation of the theory resulted in the Renaissance period through the treatises of classical contractarians Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau. The manuscript describes the main arguments regarding the theory of social contract and suggests the main similarities and differences among them. Finally, the manuscript, according to the main description of the theories, suggests the main categorization of their results in legitimizing the political authority. In the final section, the article proposes the contribution of the theory of the social contract to the modern era and summarizes the positive aspects of its arguments to the legitimization of the political authority of modern states.
The main objective of this paper is to present in a deductive way, solutions for general games played under normal conditions following competitive paths, applying core principles of Nash equilibrium. Here the normal approach implies strategic choices available for each player, formulated and implemented without any information concerning specific choices to be made by others players. It is convenient to keep in mind that John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern outlined a set of conditions for Nash equilibrium for a game in normal form, proposed as the basic framework to analyze the conditions and requirements for a particular Nash equilibrium to be the solution of the game. Theorems that exhibit imbedding relations among the Nash equilibriums of the game are given to examine the role of pre-play communication and the imbedding order in equilibrium selection. A core argument to claim here is that a generic case of Nash equilibriums that are strategically unstable relative to maxi-min strategies is given to emphasize the role of moves of the third kind and pre-play communication in correlated and coordinated solutions and the need to account for cases where Nash equilibriums are not plausible or even desirable as solutions for a game in normal form.
While Nigeria was under President Sani Abacha’s dictatorship, the democratic system was toppled in Sierra Leone by rebels but Abacha reversed the trend. The reasons for the largely unilateral and hasty decision to restore democracy in Sierra Leone by the Abacha regime remain controversial. Wide skepticism and condemnation greeted the decision to commit Nigerian troops, money and materials to a foreign operation at the expense of Nigeria’s fragile economy. The Nigeria Armed Forces consequently became the instrument for the pursuant of an aggressive foreign policy. The Economic Community of West Africa Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) hastily deployed to Sierra Leone just as it had previously done in Liberia amidst various operational and logistical problems. In terms of interests, Nigeria’s attempt to restore democracy in Sierra Leone was perceived to be contradictory both at home and abroad since Abacha’s regime itself was undemocratic and facing international isolation. The view that the Force was being used by the Abacha regime to pursue its own economic and political interest dampened the enthusiasm of regional and international organizations to provide financial and logistic support. Either way, the argument of this paper is that Nigeria’s unilateral military action in Sierra Leone was a reflection of her desire to score a quick military victory outside an Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sub regional security legal framework but it failed woefully.
The application of death penalty has been a subject of heated arguments amongst scholars, human right proponents and Christian religious leaders. Although several nations the world over have abrogated its use, Nigeria still has death penalty deeply entrenched in its statute books. In spite of this, capital offences are still on the increase thus calling to question, its relevance as a form of deterrent. The study utilised the functionalist theory.The design was exploratory and involved the use of qualitative methods of data collection. Three states: Edo, Delta and Anambra in southern Nigeria were purposively selected due to high incidence of the commission of capital offences in the locations. 1200 questionnaires were administered to respondents, 30 in-depth interviews and 15 key informant interviews were conducted. A descriptive analysis of the quantitative data collected was undertaken using frequency distribution while the manual content analysis was used for qualitative data collected from the field work. Findings from this investigation showed that death penalty does not in any way deter would-be criminals from committing crime. Based on the findings of the study, government rather than eliminating criminals should instead focus more on their rehabilitation and also use its enormous power and resources to redress some of the inequalities and injustice that characterize our society which is often the cause of crime.
Siti Wardah, Darmawan Salman, Andi Agustang and Imam Mujahidin Fahmid
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Wardah, Siti. (2012). Respon Petani terhadap Penyuluhan Penggunaan Pupuk Organik pada Tanaman Padi. [Unpublished Dissertation]. Makassar.