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Cheating is the Name of the Game - Conventional Cheating Arguments Fail to Articulate Moral Responses to Doping

., Savulescu, J. (2007). Ethics of Performance Enhancement in Sport: Drugs and Gene Doping. In R. E. Ashcroft, A. Dawson, H. Draper, and J. R. McMillan (Eds.), Principles of Health Care Ethics (pp. 511-519). London: John Wiley and Sons. Gardner, R. (1989). On Performance-Enhancing Substances and the Unfair Advantage Argument. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport , 16(1), 59-73 Green, S.P. (2004). Cheating Law and Philosophy , 23, 137-85. Hamilton, T., Coyle, D. (2012). The Secret Race . Bantam, USA. Hardie, M

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The Line in the Sand for British Strength Sports. No Second Chances and the Creation of a Drug Free for Life Ethos

allow performance enhancing drugs in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38, 666-670. DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.2003.005249.38: 666-670. Robinson, P.E. (2010). Foundations of Sport Coaching. London: Routledge. Schneider, A. & Butcher, R (2000). A Philosophical Overview of the Arguments on Banning Doping in Sport. In C. Tamburrini & T. Tännsjö (Eds.), Values in Sport: Elitism, Nationalism, Gender Equality and the Scientific Manufacturing of Winners (Ethics and Sport) (pp. 185-199). London: Taylor & Francis. Suits. B. (1978). The Grasshopper

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Analysis of Successful Offensive Play Patterns by the Spanish Soccer Team

Introduction When studying performance in soccer, one could assume that performance indicators recorded for successful or unsuccessful actions will reflect both individual and team performance. However, there is always an element of chance and unpredictability in team sports ( Gronek et al., 2015 ; Kalinowski et al., 2019 ). Players, coaches, and fans largely agree that chance is sometimes important for understanding the result of a match. The above argument, however, is not valid for the scientific community ( Ramos et al., 2017 ). Empirically speaking

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The World Health Organisation's Rationale for Physical Activity: a Philosophical Critique

The World Health Organisation's Rationale for Physical Activity: a Philosophical Critique

The World Health Organisation's rationale for physical activity draws heavily on scientific evidence regarding disease and obesity. Greater philosophical reflection on such concepts, along with a recognition that supposed scientific facts are rarely value-free, allow for a more positive and considered argument for physical activity and its benefits. Olympism, Olympic culture, sports education, pedagogy of sport

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Sporting Recommendations for Teaching Fair Play: A Logical and Evolutionary Account

Sporting Recommendations for Teaching Fair Play: A Logical and Evolutionary Account

In this paper I argue for a cross-disciplinary approach to teaching sport ethics. I call this a logical and evolutionary account because information that emanates from cell biology, anthropology, philosophy and everywhere in between, I claim, is needed in developing effective fair play pedagogies. The gist of the argument is this: We need to teach smarter, not just harder. Teaching smarter, I say, comes from an understanding of human nature and the logic of sport. I discuss animal behavior, emotions, genetic predispositions, human evolution, the structure of games, philosophical idealism, and other factors in producing five recommendations for teaching sport ethics.

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University Sports: Major Development and New Perspectives

University Sports: Major Development and New Perspectives

New technologies, scientific findings and new or refined kinds of sport as well as national and international contests determine the image of university sports. There is no doubt that university sports are a growing area and will play an important role in the future. Their significance will increase in particular with the increase of knowledge about the positive effects of sports.

Looking at social development as a whole and in its parts makes it possible to identify university sports in their present state, their dynamics and development within a context. By way of example major trends and prospects of university sports in contemporary societies will be discussed. In addition some data from empirical studies will be presented in order to underline the argumentation.

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Physical Activity During Therapy of Self- Disorder Among Patients with Schizophrenia.A Phenomenological Understanding of the Relationship Between Healing and Physical Activity

Abstract

Studies indicate that physical activity has a positive effect both physiologically and socially for psychologically ill and vulnerable people, and that this effect is the same or greater for psychologically well-functioning people. In spite of this, treatment sites often hesitate to include sports and physical activity as part of the treatment offered. This article argues that there is a strong correlation between the body and mind, but from a different point of view than that adopted by the prevalent scientific research in the field. Specifically, I elucidate how the mind-body relationship and self-consciousness are influenced by physical activity for people with schizophrenia, and argue that symptoms are relieved as a result of physical activity. Consciousness has a bodily component that, for people with schizophrenia, is less well-integrated in the consciousness than for psychologically well-functioning people, and sports and physical activity can help facilitate this integration. My argument is based partly on phenomenological concepts and partly on an empirical research project concerning physical activity for people with schizophrenia. The conclusion is that their level of functioning and self-assessed quality of life increased markedly through physical activity. The purpose of the present article is thus partly to qualify the treatment chosen for people with schizophrenia, and partly to qualify the theoretical discussion concerning the role played by the body and physical activity in connection with consciousness and relief.

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The Role of Situational Variables in Analysing Physical Performance in Soccer

Performance analysis in sport is used to investigate the performance of teams and players across different sports. Research within this area, especially when focussing on the determinants of success, has grown rapidly in the last few years. During this time, the role of a new concept, ‘situational variables’ has emerged. This term includes the different game and situational conditions that may influence performance at a behavioural level. Given that soccer is dominated by strategic factors, it is reasonable to suggest that situational variables of match status (i.e. whether the team is winning, losing or drawing), quality of opposition (strong or weak), and match location (i.e. playing at home or away) may somehow influence the teams´ and players´ activities. These situational variables need to be analyzed in depth to understand their influence in team sports. The aim of this article was to examine the independent and interactive effects of situational variables on physical performance in elite soccer. The view that professional soccer players regulate their physical efforts according to the specific demands of individual matches and periods of the game is offered. In support of this argument results from recent studies are presented. Implications of this perspective for match analyst and coaches for evaluating performance are also considered.

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Considerations on General Methodological Assumptions of the Sciences of Sport

Abstract

The considerations included in the article are the result of several years of teaching general methodology for doctoral studies at Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw.

The presented text consists of two basic parts. The first includes reminiscences and associated methodological resentment. The second presents a wide panorama of standpoints concerning functions and kinds of hypotheses, their role and significance in contemporary research programs of formal, empirical (connected with natural sciences and biology), and humanities nature. Sketchy and encyclopaedic interpretations, presented in the context of commentaries by the author of this paper, thereby dominate.

The aim of the first part is to draw attention to some methodological mistakes which often appear and which have become common in some academic milieus to such a degree that some intervention and postulatory correction, referring to Polish and Western methodological literature, is advisable. These shortcomings are connected, among other things, with the structure of the scientific work, with the formulation and application of hypotheses, with relations taking place between the general methodology and specialized methodologies, kinds and types of research work, with reliability of information on sources of creative information, as well with the category of verification in its relation, on the one hand, to confirmation and corroboration, and on the other hand, to testing, checking, falsification, and terms close in meaning to the last one.

The abovementioned resentment results, first of all, from the fact that the authors discussed in the first part usually insist on erroneous solutions, negating a priori, without becoming acquainted with the literature on the subject or making attempts to explain or initiate a methodological argument referring to sources and studies.

That resentment is significant, among other things, in the causal sense - that is, because of the fact that, firstly, it justifies and substantiates the need for a statement presenting controversial questions in a content-related and formal way. Secondly, because thanks to such (that is, cognitive-emotional) introduction, the whole argument - not only in the first, but also in the second part - is much more interesting. It is saturated with authenticity. Many readers know the figures mentioned and are familiar with their - sometimes too insouciant (sometimes not very reliable) - attitudes to important issues from the field of research methods. It is also interesting why the people cited make mistakes. Hence, it is also advisable to look at a wider methodological context of justification (included in the much longer second part) dedicated to perhaps the most thorough characteristics of the hypothesis in the literature on the subject, which is available to the author. Without presentation of the controversial issues in the first part, the second part, more important from the methodological viewpoint, might be omitted by a considerable proportion of readers. In that part attention is paid mainly to issues concerning working, initial, zero, primary, introductory, directing, gradual, auxiliary, ad hoc auxiliary, bridge, futile and true, dangerous and safe, quite natural and neutral, individual and general, complete and incomplete, deep, strong, probabilistic and non-probabilistic (that is, deterministic), related, falsifying, basic, psychological, metaphysical and materialist hypotheses, as well as those concluding ones - that is, those constituting the final effect of definite (concluded here and now) research; hence, those which have undergone verification, confirmation, corroboration or modification as those which predict and explain a given research problem in the best possible way.

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Atlanto-Axial Instability in People with Down’s Syndrome and its Impact on the Ability to Perform Sports Activities – A Review

Abstract

Atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is a developmental anomaly often occurring in persons with Down’s syndrome (DS). According to various reports, AAI affects from 6.8 to 27% of the population with DS. The aim of this review was to illustrate the issue of AAI with regard to the progressively changing state of scientific knowledge. The extended distance between the rear surface of the frontal arcus of the C1 cervical vertebra and the anterior surface of C2 cervical vertebra dens (anterior atlanto-odontoid distance, AAOD) indicates the occurrence of AAI and is detectable through X-ray examination. Hypoplasia of the C2 dens, also detectable through X-ray examination, is another suggested risk factor for AAI. According to current data, the methodology of taking measurements is inconsistent, which leads to errors in interpretation. As research focusing on AAI was progressing, new data emerged from other studies on persons with DS, suggesting that neurological symptoms in persons with DS that indicated the occurrence of spinal cord compression were an important factor in medical imaging detection of AAI. One of the main arguments supporting this thesis is that in isolated cases spinal cord (SC) damage was noted during screening examinations conducted on a large population of subjects. Moreover, cases in which the neurological symptoms indicate spinal cord compression existed long before the occurrence of the actual damage also remain of significant importance. Therefore, it is necessary to promote neurological studies on persons with DS to enable early diagnosis of spinal cord compression and, at the same time, reduce the use of medical imaging in cases of neurological symptoms.

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