Rawls' [ 10 ] theory of justice and the difference principle, there is another argument that supports compensation for disadvantages resulting from bad luck in the social lottery. This argument emphasizes the core position of individual responsibility and puts forth that if a disadvantage is as a result of an individual's own behavior, then it is not society's responsibility to compensate for that disadvantage [ 14 ]. However, if the disadvantages happen to find an individual due to bad luck in the natural lottery, then justice requires that society eliminate these
and maximum threshold dietary intake of ochratoxin A for causing renal cancer in Dark Agouti rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47:2419-24.
Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Castegnaro M. Further arguments in favour of direct covalent binding of Ochratoxin A (OTA) after metabolic biotransformation. Food Addit Contam 2005;22(Suppl 1):75-87.
Mengs U. Tumour induction in mice following exposure to aristolochic acid. Arch Toxicol 1988;61:504-5.
EMEA, European Medicines Agency, Evaluation of Medicines for
D. Avdjieva-Tzavella, S. Mihailova, C. Lukanov, E. Naumova, E. Simeonov, R. Tincheva and D. Toncheva
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown origin that manifests in early childhood. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) refer to a broader group of neurobiological conditions, pervasive developmental disorders. Despite several arguments for a strong genetic contribution, the molecular basis in most cases remains unexplained. Several studies have reported an association between ASDs and mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule. In order to confirm these causative relationship, we screened 21 individuals with idiopathic ASDs for a number of the most common mtDNA mutations. We identified two patients with candidate mutations: m.6852G>A that produces an amino acid change of glycine to serine in the MT-CO1 gene and m.8033A>G (Ile→Val) in the MT-CO2 gene. Overall, these findings support the notion that mitochondrial mutations are associated with ASDs. Additional studies are needed to further define the role of mitochondrial defects in the pathogenesis of autism.
The aim of this study was to investigate how chronic low-dose chlorpyrifos exposure of female Wistar rats before and during pregnancy affects behavioural parameters in their offspring. Four months before pregnancy, we exposed three groups of rats to chlorpyrifos doses of 5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1 body weight every day for 30 days, whereas one group received a single 30 mg kg-1 dose on gestational day 6. When the offspring of the exposed rats grew up, we studied their anxiety rate, motor activity, and cognitive abilities using the respective behavioural tests: open field test, dark/light box, and the extrapolation escape test. The offspring of rats exposed before pregnancy had significantly higher activity rate than controls, and even showed motor agitation and hyperactivity signs. The offspring of rats exposed to the single dose had difficulties solving the extrapolation escape test and showed poorer short- and long-term memory performance. This confirmed that even pre-pregnancy chlorpyrifos exposure can cause neurobehavioral consequences in offspring. Even though the mechanisms of the observed changes remain unclear and need further investigation, these data seem alarming and may serve as an important argument for revising the terms of safe pesticide use
. The development of moral reasoning. Ann Child Dev 1988;55:677-91.
14. Hernstein RJ, Murray C. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York (NY): Free Press; 1994.
15. Derryberry WP, Wilson T, Snyder H, Norman T, Barger B. Moral judgment developmental differences between gifted youth and college students. J Second Gift Educ 2005;17:6-19. doi: 10.4219/jsge-2005-392
16. Tirri K, Pehkonen L. The moral reasoning and scientific argumentation of gifted adolescents. Journal of Secondary Gifted
Mariana Tozlovanu, Delphine Canadas, Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Christine Frenette, Robert J. Paugh and Richard A. Manderville
molecular modeling. J Phys Chem B 2005;109:16926-36.
37. Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Castegnaro M. Further arguments in favour of direct covalent binding of ochratoxin A (OTA) after metabolic biotransformation. Food Addit Contam 2005;22(Suppl 1):75-87.
38. Castegnaro M, Mohr U, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Esteve J, Steinmann J, Tillman J, Michelon J, Bartsch H. Sex and strain-specific induction of renal tumours by ochratoxin A rats correlates with DNA adduction. Int J Cancer 1998;77:70-5.
39. Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Pinelli E, Bartsch H, Mohr U
Sašo Stoleski, Jovanka Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Elisaveta Stikova, Snežana Risteska-kuc, Dragan Mijakoski and Jordan Minov
of arguments for excluding ALAD from the recommended biological limit values in occupational exposure to inorganic lead (WHO 1980). Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1982;50:397-412.
Doss M, Laubenthal F, Stoeppler M Lead poisoning in inherited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1984;54:55-63.
Telišman S, Prpić-Majić D, Kežić S. In vivo study on lead and alcohol interaction and the inhibition of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in man. Scand J Work Environ
Ana Marija Marjanović, Ivan Pavičić and Ivančica Trošić
plausibility, including experimental/epidemiological evidence, computer models and explicit evaluation of contrary arguments [displayed 17 January 2012]. Available at http://ihcp.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ our_activities/public-health/exposure_health_impact_met/ emf-net/docs/reports/D41_Reports%20on%20theoretical% 20mechanisms%20.pdf
30. Stass DV, Woodward JR, Timmel CR, Hore PJ, McLauchlan KA. Radiofrequency magnetic feld effects on chemical reaction yields. Chem Phys Lett 2000;329:15-22.
31. Scaiano JC. Control of chemical reactions with magnetic fi
S Verma, R Shah, A Bhat, GR Bhat, R Dada and R Kumar
doubt that translocations could cause recurrent reproductive loss, even though carriers are phenotypically normal. Recent advancement in the field of infertility has led to strong argument of genetic analysis pre or post implantation.
Poor fertilization and pregnancy rate has been reported in several studies on translocation carriers opting for ART [ 30 ]. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases has shown a very high incidence of aneuploidies, and structural abnormalities [ 31 , 32 ]. This study is highly significant in this era of ART, where the
Sutharinee Likitnukul, Sarinee Kalandakanond-Thongsong and Sumpun Thammacharoen
influenced by insulin and leptin [ 21 ]. The latter argument appeared to be the major cause of the discrepancy in the short-term GH treatment on plasma leptin [ 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. To study whether fat mass influenced the effect of GH on plasma leptin, the current experiments investigated the short-term effects of GH treatment on 2 different amounts of adipose tissue mass from control and obese rats. In addition, this study emphasized basal plasma leptin , which refers to the light phase plasma leptin in ad libitum rats [ 4 ], meal-induced and fasting