The Himalayan range extends upto 2400 km arc from Indus river valley in the west to Brahmaputra river valley in the east of India. Due to distinct geological structures of Himalayan seismic belt, seismicity in Himalaya is inhomogeneous. The inhomogeneity in seismicity is responsible for a number of seismic gaps in the Himalayan seismic belt. Thus Iin the present study, we proposed the study of spatial and temporal evolution of seismicity in entire central and north-east Himalayan region by using Gutenberg-Richter relationship. A detailed study on the behavior of natural seismicity in and around the seismic gap regions is carried out. The study region is segmented in four meridional regions (A) 80°E to 83.5°E, (B) 83.5°E to 87.5°E, (C) 87.5°E to 90°E and (D) 90°E to 98°E along with a fixed latitude belt. The homogeneous catalogue with 3 ≤ Mb ≤ 6.5 is used for the spatial and temporal analysis of seismicity in terms of b-value. It is find out that pockets of lower b-values are coinciding over and around stress accumulated regions. The observed low b-value before occurrence of the Nepal earthquake of 25th April, 2015 supports the argument of impending occurrence of moderate to large magnitude earthquake in Sikkim and north-east Himalayan region in future.
Jaroslav Rožnovský, Tomáš Litschmann, Hana Středová, Tomáš Středa, Petr Salaš and Marie Horká
Urban environment differs from the surrounding landscape in terms of the values of meteorological parameters. This is often referred to as the urban heat island (UHI), which in simple terms means higher air temperatures in cities. The cause of these changes lies in the different active surfaces in cities, which subsequently results in a different radiation balance. The higher temperatures, however, also affect the living conditions in the city and during very high temperature periods can have negative effects on the health of the city inhabitants. The results presented in this paper are based on measurements taken over several years at locations near Hradec Králové, which is surrounded by different surface areas. Environment analysis was performed using the Humidex index. The obtained results show that replacing green areas with built-up areas affects temperatures in the city, when air temperatures are very high they significantly increase the discomfort of the inhabitants. Differences in the frequency of discomfort levels are observed especially during periods of high temperatures, at lower temperatures these differences are not significant. Higher frequencies of discomfort are observed at locations with artificial surfaces (asphalt, cobblestones, concrete) and in closed spaces. In contrast, locations with lots of green areas almost always have the value of this index lower or more balanced. The results should therefore be a valid argument for maintaining and extending green areas in cities.
Climatic variables defining climatic regions of estimated pedologic-ecological system (EPEU) were calculated based on fifty-year climatic data from 1961 to 2010. Obtained results were subsequently compared to intervals determining individual climatic regions defined by previous climatic data (1901-1950). In many agricultural intense areas sum of air temperature and mean air temperature exceeded upper limit. In terms of precipitation it is especially noticeable in the wet (higher) altitudes. Significant volatility was found for probability of dry periods from April to September. The values of the moisture certainty from April to September for the period 1961-2010 reached to several tens. In the final analysis, the only safe prediction is that the present and future are likely to be very different from the past. It is necessary to take it into account for actualization of EPEU methodology. Among the strongest arguments justifying the need of this actualization is in particular climate development since 1901, technological progress and improved measurement technology as well as automation and development of climate models coupled with simulations of complex characteristics and estimates of future climate. It is evident that the development of climate and other factors have an enormous impact on soil fertility. This should be also taken into consideration when fixing the official price. It is necessary to consider the possible replacement of the existing characteristics by more suitable (for example soil moisture balance). The findings might be summarized in few words: old climatic regions do not reflect actual climatic conditions.
Mohamed Arfaoui, Mohamed Hedi Inoubli and Adnen Amiri
No 39. Office National des Mines. Tunisie.
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Dušan Majcin, Dušan Bilčík, Roman Kutas, Petra Hlavňová, Vladimír Bezák and Ľudovít Kucharič
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Konečný V., Kováč M., Lexa J., Sefara J., 2002: Neogene evolution of the Carpatho- Pannonian region: an interplay of subduction and back-arc diapiric uprise in the mantle. EGU Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series, 1, 105
-quality mapping. The flexibility of the usage of the GMT modules for data modelling proves it to be an excellent tool set for the geomatics and cartographic data visualization.
The GMT compatibility with Unix commands enables a cartographer to insert echo, rm Unix commands directly in the GMT code and to integrate GMT data modelling with further data processing to Matlab. Unix echo is a command available in shell Unix scripts. Its meaning is as follows. It puts the string texts passed as arguments to the visualization on the computer screen or printed output. In other words
proliferation of private vehicle use, the denigration of public space and unequal access to transport systems. Indeed it is regrettable that some of these auspicious bus projects have failed to result in a higher-quality system of public transport (e.g. TranSantiago in Chile) and yet few of the discouraging lessons circulate ( Gilbert 2002 ).
The arguments in this paper are grounded within the policy mobilities scholarship ( McCann & Ward 2011 ; Peck & Theodore 2015 ), drawing as well on relevant debates on knowledge exchange from political science, communications and
planning system’ ( Rydin 1986 : 28). The debate over land availability has intensified over recent decades with, in general, builder-developers arguing that the planning-system restricts their ability to obtain a basic factor of production and that development controls inflate the price of land and, therefore, of houses. The main building pressure group, the Home Builders Federation, has extended the argument on behalf of its members to contend that planners are frustrating households’ home-ownership ambitions and threatening the livelihood of small builders, as well as
. & Klusacek P. 2010 Population decline in Polish and Czech cities during post – socialism? Looking behind the official statisics Urban Studies 47 11 2325 2346
Szukała, M. (2015) 4ELT. Innowacyjny, zintegrowany program nauczania w klasach I-III Trening twórczości 4ELT, Poznan [in Polish].
Szukała M. 2015 4ELT. Innowacyjny, zintegrowany program nauczania w klasach I-III Trening twórczości 4ELT, Poznan in Polish
Turok, I. & McGranahan, G. (2013) Urbanization and economic growth: the arguments and evidence for Africa and Asia Environment
area’ ( Brannan, John & Stoker 2006 : 1001). On the contrary, anecdotal evidence, compounded by a general lack of adequate description of the designs and methods used in participatory processes in favour of a more normative statement on citizen participation as good per se , is often found in this field of study. Scientific knowledge frequently produces arguments based on a self-evident legitimation of participatory processes and, as highlighted by L. Häikiö (2012: 432) , ‘discursive structures presented in scientific texts have an effect on the ways legitimate