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Arguments Used for Restricting International Real Property Transactions: Case Study of Latvia

Abstract

There is a wide range of factors - political, economic, legal, etc., which either limit or promote international real property transactions. It is considered that real property alienation to foreigners enhances foreign investment and economic development, however, some countries tend to limit such transactions. The current research provides a scientific view to reveal the reasons why certain countries impose different kinds of restrictions on international real property transactions. The objectives of this publication are: 1) to find out and analyse the existing arguments and reasons for limiting international real property transactions; 2) to determine the number and volume of international real property transactions in Latvia; 3) to identify the main argumentation for the current step and significant decline of international real property transactions in Latvia. Empirical analysis based on the review of scientific publications, statistical and comparative analysis of real property transactions are the main methods employed for this research.

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Arguments for Csr-Based Sustainable Competitiveness of Multinationals in Emerging Markets (Part II)

Abstract

The (two parts of the) paper aims to bring into discussion the case of CSR-based sustainable competitiveness of multinationals in emerging market economies, through an interdisciplinary approach (international business and strategic management) applied to a multilevel analysis (country and company). The main conclusion of the paper is that, despite the circumstances that nowadays characterize international business in general and the emerging market economies in particular, such a transformation in business models is not only desirable, but mandatory. Key arguments in favor of this assumption are found (both theoretically and empirically) at global/general level and, as well, at the emerging market economies’ level.

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Arguments in Favor of Moving to a Sustainable Business Model in the Apiary Industry

Abstract

Today’s society faces major challenges in meeting future global food demands and solving biodiversity loss, and it quickly needs to find ways in addressing these issues. The places to look for solutions come from the economic sectors that employ the most powerful pressure on these issues such as agriculture. Apiculture, as a branch of agriculture is being more and more recognized as sustaining human life and contributing to sustainability. However, the sector records a progressive decline of honey bees. Therefore, a rapid restructuring needs to take place in agricultural markets, in general, as well as in apiary agribusinesses. Although important, technological progress is insufficient in providing the necessary changes to achieve long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability, which should be considered both within and between generations. Consequently, sustainable business models encourage sustainable development through a triple bottom line approach and provide an analytical tool for firms into assessing the different aspects that are combined in order to create value. Since literature has paid little attention to the sustainable development in the apiary agribusiness, the present paper aims to link the two using a business model perspective and bring arguments in favor of moving to a sustainable business model.

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Tobin Tax: Arguments and Current Derivative Studies

Abstract

Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU) and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.

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Essay on Saving and Consumption

Abstract

Consumption and saving decisions are at the heart of both short- and long-term macroeconomic analyses. Since the global crisis outbreak, one of the main issues for indebted countries has been whether to pursue a policy which promotes saving or to try to induce economic growth by increasing consumption. Consensus has not been reached on this issue, which is based on an old debate of whether a country should pursue a policy of Keynesianism or monetarism.

Ergo, this essay discusses arguments supporting both approaches, primarily through theoretical arguments of Keynesianism and monetarism. The authors concluded that in a crisis environment, consumption policy should be given priority; however, a precondition for this is that a country was not overburdened prior to the crisis outbreak, i.e. a successful crisis management policy should, in fact, be pursued over the periods of expansion.

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Over-reaction to Policy Signals, and Central Bank Optimal Communication Policy

Abstract

This paper reviews the theoretical arguments and counter arguments regarding central bank optimal communication policy in an environment with imperfect common knowledge and strategic complementarity. More specifically, the paper discusses the environment in which full transparency is no longer necessarily the superior strategy. Uncertainty about the underlying economic state in the presence of dispersed information is the basis for the emergence of imperfect common knowledge. These issues are further discussed in an augmented Lucas-island model. Full policy transparency in this setting leads to overreliance to central bank public policy signals, resulting in the expectations coordination away from fundamentals - dubbed as over-reaction to central bank announcements. Optimal communication policy in this context entails strategies to limit over-reaction via partial transparency or partial publicity.

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Luigi Sturzo and Civil Economy

Abstract

The paper defends the thesis that a proper understanding of Sturzo’s thought and work can be achieved only within the perspective of the civil economy paradigm. After exposing the main pillars characterizing the civil economy research program, the argument proceeds indicating the reasons why Sturzo did not consider adequate, for a country like Italy, the proposal of the social market economy. The paper concludes suggesting same reasons to explain the fin de non recevoir of the political establishment with respect to Sturzo’s testimony.

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Method of Constructing the Fuzzy Regression Model of Bank Competitiveness

Abstract

The paper substantiates the need to consider economic efficiency indicators of bank activity as fuzzy quantities. Formulations of the problem of fuzzy regression analysis and modelling, available in literary sources, have been analyzed. Three main approaches to the fuzzy regression analysis are presented. The general mathematical and meaningful formulation of problem of a fuzzy multivariate regression analysis for commercial bank competitiveness has been proposed. Sequence of its solutions is described. The example of numerical computations for one of the large Ukrainian banks is given. Results of obtained solution were analyzed from the standpoint of reliability, accuracy and compared against the classical crisp regression analysis. Finishing steps for obtaining final accurate numerical results of solution process are described. In summary, convincing arguments concerning the expediency of application of this approach to the problem of determining the competitiveness of banks are formulated and presented.

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ICT solutions in intelligent organizations as challenges in a knowledge economy

Summary

Solutions of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are the foundation of modern economic organizations in a knowledge economy. This is the case in particular in intelligent organizations, for which the advanced ICT infrastructure is the sine qua non condition for the effective knowledge management. This article is aimed at describing the role of modern ICT trends, which are described as SMAC, (Social, Mobility, Analytics, Cloud), and are becoming an essential ICT element supporting management processes. Such solutions enable to create new models of organization operations on the global markets using strategic resources, such as the knowledge supported with SMAC solutions. The arguments are illustrated with results of own research conducted by the author in 2014-2016 in selected SME’s from the Mazowieckie and Wielkopolskie rovinces and their reference to the general development trends in this area.

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Prostitution, Essential and Incidental Aspects: A Libertarian Argument for Legalization

Abstract

Prostitution is often depicted as an aggressive and coercive activity. We have convincing empirical evidence that sometimes this is indeed the case. However, this is not sufficient to make it illegal. We argue that an activity should be outlawed if and only if it is essentially aggressive and/or coercive. But prostitution is not inherently violent, only incidentally. Indeed, prostitution could be defined as “the act of rendering, from the client’s point of view, non-reproductive sex against payment” (Edlund and Korn, 2002). No aggression and/or coercion necessarily enters this all-inclusive definition. This is why prostitution should be legalized laws to the contrary repealed.

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