In the course of discussion on an econometric model of property value and its place in property appraisal, the argument of the main goal of the process (property market value prediction itself) was raised in this article. The need for the consideration of an ontologically perceived, particular element of the real estate market with its distinctive characteristics indicates the specific nature of the interpretation of the data which may be used in the appraisal process.
Therefore, a new shape of the property value model, based on LSM, was presented. It takes into account a specific description of the appraised property. Thus, the factor of dissimilarity between sold properties used in creating the value model and the appraised property was used in its coefficient matrix. The new model clearly shows the advantages and disadvantages of the dissimilarities between sold properties used in creating the coefficient matrix of the value model.
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KAUKO T., 2003a, Planning processes, development potential and house prices: contesting positive and normative argumentation. Focus article. Housing, Theory and Society , 20(3), 113-126.
KAUKO T., 2003b
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2. Abdul-Raof, H. Schools of Qur’anic Exegesis , London and New York: Routledge, 2010.
3. āl-Bayhaqy, āl-Jami‘ li Shu‘ab āl- ’y mān. Maktabat āl-Rushd: āl-Riyaḍ, 2003.
4. āl-Bayhaqy, Manāqib āl-Šāfi‘y . Dār āl-Turāṯ: Cairo, 1970.
5. āl-Buḵāry, āl-Jāmi‘ āl-Şaḥyḥ . Dār Ţawq āl-Najāḥ: āl-Madyna āl-Munawwara.
6. āl-Hayṯamy, Kašf āl
The property tax reform is the subject of numerous discussions and multi-aspect analyses. One of the conclusions from the analyses is an argument referring to the risk of a substantial rise in financial charges imposed on objects of taxation. The replacement of property tax with ad valorem property tax is seen as a potential source of increased revenue for communes. However, some of the communes may experience the opposite effect, i.e. the risk of a revenue loss. Should the tax reform come into force, it will result in protests among the affected local governments. The paper presents the results of a study into the situation of an exemplary commune, where specific conditions that could lead to lowering the commune’s revenue due to the introduction of the ad valorem property tax may occur.
A global economy cannot be driven in a consistent way by national competition laws. Both the liberalization of markets and the revolution in information and communication have triggered an unprecedented degree of interrelations of national economies. This leads to the internationalization of restrictive business practices. Despite of the WTO efforts and some agreements inside it related with antitrust, global markets have no competition rules. There are a number of economic arguments addressed to take real steps in order to establish a global framework for competition policy. Currently, the international system of competition policy seems gradually ill-suited for dealing with transnational restrictive business practices. The issue is now which organizational form and what degree of decentralization would be optimal for a multilevel system of international competition policy. Depending on the goals of the project, different degrees of decentralization would be more or less desirable.
Research undertaken by the World Bank in Europe and the Central Asia Region indicates that there are four principal preconditions for introducing value-based recurrent property tax reforms: comprehensive property registration, a reliable source of data about the prices achieved in transactions, a valuation infrastructure that complies with internationally-recognized standards, and an efficient tax collection system. In spite of the arguments in favor of value-based recurrent property taxes, many countries raise revenue from recurrent property taxes using an area basis, and most countries raise relatively little revenue from recurrent property taxes. The paper has been written according to both the dogmatic-legal method and comparative method. It presents current solutions adopted in post-Soviet European countries in order to draw out recommendations and suggestions for Poland. The original reasoning for the paper is that, amongst many scientific papers concerning thorough debate of property tax systems, few have focused on post-Soviet countries and the issues that arise in transition countries. Most concern Western European or North American countries with different economies, politics, institutions, and histories to the Eastern ones. Authors of the paper believe that the article can fill the gap in discussions on the shape of the property tax system reform in Poland and the reforms carried out in Eastern Europe countries.
Market value is one of the most difficult notions in economics. It is also one of the most puzzling in the valuation industry, although its definitions can be found in the International Valuation Standards, European Valuation Standards, RICS standards and national standards. This value tends to be given different interpretations and misconceptions surrounding it are shared by many members of the property valuer community. The many ways in which property market value is understood leads to misvaluations and significant variations between valuation results, which are damaging to the prestige of the property valuation profession. This article explores areas giving rise to the misinterpretations of property market value to provide a critical review of the existing views, and to put forward arguments explaining why they should be revised. To this end, a critical literature review and observations made by the author during discussions with valuation professionals taking skill-improvement courses, scientific conferences on valuation methodology and practice, and entry exams for the profession of property valuers are used. Three main areas conducive to the emergence of myths have been identified: the interpretation of property market value (four myths), the process of arriving at property market value (ten myths) and the interpretation of valuation results (one myth). The myths are challenged on the grounds of the market value concept and its interpretation as used in economics.
The invention of printing press and the process of book production had an important impact on the entire human action, affecting almost every political, economic, social, religious and philosophical field.
For centuries, the book production was mostly conducted in relation with the Church. And this is just one argument that could explain the contribution of religion and religious movements on accumulation and spreading the culture, stimulating the human capital evolution and the economic growth.
The paper indicates the reasons why the level of book production can be considered an indicator of the human capital evolution. Several references to religion movements, printing and bookselling are also included at that point. The role of Reformation in the development of human capital and long-run economic growth is also emphasized.
In its final part, the article brings some valuable ideas about the positive relationship of book production, literacy, human capital, urbanization and economic growth in Western Europe on the eve of Industrial Revolution. In these terms, it is taken into account a thesis regarding an economic growth scenario for Romanian territories, derived from a case study on religious roots of Romanian book production during (early) Modern Age.
Horváth, G., Bakó, R. K., and Biró-Kaszás, E. (Eds.), 2014. Ten Years of Facebook. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Argumentation and Rhetoric. Oradea, Romania: Partium Press.
Măzăreanu, V. P., 2010. Economia digitală si managementul riscurilor. Iașii: Editura Tehnopress.
Munteanu, A., Fotache, D., and Dospinescu, O., 2008. Information Systems Security Risk Assessment. Harmonization with International Accounting Standards. Paper presented at the International