Japan's new competitive advantage: the arguments and proposals for structural reorientation
As forecasted by the Japanese government, the country's economy will grow, although slowly. This expectation is determined by the risk that the labour market situation and the worldwide business cycle will keep deteriorating. It is believed that the economy will not be spurred by exports growing as a result of worldwide recovery, but rather by a series of stabilization packages and gradually expanding domestic demand. The expectations should be treated with a great deal of cautiousness, because of the highly unpredictable rate of unemployment, the concerns about deflation and the probability of the global recession turning out more serious than expected.
According to the AFP (Gazeta Wyborcza of 08 Dec. 2009), in the third quarter of 2009 the Japanese economy finally showed some signs of recovery and reached positive values; unemployment also dropped from 5.3% to 5.1% between September and October. The widespread opinion is that the recovery is very fragile, as proved by the steadily falling prices, deflation, and the rising yen exchange rate (the highest in the last 14 years - 84 yen to 1 US dollar), threatening the Japanese exports.
There is a wide range of factors - political, economic, legal, etc., which either limit or promote international real property transactions. It is considered that real property alienation to foreigners enhances foreign investment and economic development, however, some countries tend to limit such transactions. The current research provides a scientific view to reveal the reasons why certain countries impose different kinds of restrictions on international real property transactions. The objectives of this publication are: 1) to find out and analyse the existing arguments and reasons for limiting international real property transactions; 2) to determine the number and volume of international real property transactions in Latvia; 3) to identify the main argumentation for the current step and significant decline of international real property transactions in Latvia. Empirical analysis based on the review of scientific publications, statistical and comparative analysis of real property transactions are the main methods employed for this research.
The (two parts of the) paper aims to bring into discussion the case of CSR-based sustainable competitiveness of multinationals in emerging market economies, through an interdisciplinary approach (international business and strategic management) applied to a multilevel analysis (country and company). The main conclusion of the paper is that, despite the circumstances that nowadays characterize international business in general and the emerging market economies in particular, such a transformation in business models is not only desirable, but mandatory. Key arguments in favor of this assumption are found (both theoretically and empirically) at global/general level and, as well, at the emerging market economies’ level.
Today’s society faces major challenges in meeting future global food demands and solving biodiversity loss, and it quickly needs to find ways in addressing these issues. The places to look for solutions come from the economic sectors that employ the most powerful pressure on these issues such as agriculture. Apiculture, as a branch of agriculture is being more and more recognized as sustaining human life and contributing to sustainability. However, the sector records a progressive decline of honey bees. Therefore, a rapid restructuring needs to take place in agricultural markets, in general, as well as in apiary agribusinesses. Although important, technological progress is insufficient in providing the necessary changes to achieve long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability, which should be considered both within and between generations. Consequently, sustainable business models encourage sustainable development through a triple bottom line approach and provide an analytical tool for firms into assessing the different aspects that are combined in order to create value. Since literature has paid little attention to the sustainable development in the apiary agribusiness, the present paper aims to link the two using a business model perspective and bring arguments in favor of moving to a sustainable business model.
Aleksandra Maksimovska Stojkova, Elena Nesovska Kjoseva and Irena Stojmenovska
The subject of this paper is four Balkan countries (Albania, Serbia, Macedonia, and Montenegro) that are determined to join the European Union. More particularly, it looks at their work towards accomplishing the political, legal and economic requirements for the EU. Thus, the legislation with the EU Fiscal Compact is the prime focus. Methodologically, the research is based on an assessment of fiscal and monetary legal documents, evaluating the stages of accomplishing the harmonization with the EU’s conditions. Further, cross-section analyses are made by in putting selected indicators; additionally, the authors compare the four countries’ achievements. The EU’s rigorous fiscal rules are being quietly bypassed, but more frequently by existing member states than the candidate states; this statement is founded on legal and economic arguments, with mathematical estimations. Consequently, the authors question the political courage and financial capacity of the examined countries to cope with the fiscal compact of the superior EU 28 members. The answers are supported with numerous analyses of EU Reports for each country, as well as tables and figures that compare the states’ results and economic achievements vs. EU fiscal consolidation rules. The EU 28 average is givenin addition as a comparison. The conclusion gives across analysis between the four countries and the EU 28 member states, with accompanying argumentation to the main statement about the legal and economic developments of the examined Balkan countries as well as a future prognosis.
In the course of discussion on an econometric model of property value and its place in property appraisal, the argument of the main goal of the process (property market value prediction itself) was raised in this article. The need for the consideration of an ontologically perceived, particular element of the real estate market with its distinctive characteristics indicates the specific nature of the interpretation of the data which may be used in the appraisal process.
Therefore, a new shape of the property value model, based on LSM, was presented. It takes into account a specific description of the appraised property. Thus, the factor of dissimilarity between sold properties used in creating the value model and the appraised property was used in its coefficient matrix. The new model clearly shows the advantages and disadvantages of the dissimilarities between sold properties used in creating the coefficient matrix of the value model.
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Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU) and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.