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Student Discussion from an Evolutionary Perspective

References BARCELÓ, J. A., BERNAL, F. D. C., DEL OLMO, R., MAMELI, L., QUESADA, F. M., POZA, D., & VILÀ, X. (2014). Social Interaction in Hunter-Gatherer Societies Simulating the Consequences of Cooperation and Social Aggregation. Social Science Computer Review, 32(3), 417-436. BERNARD, S., MERCIER, H., & CLÉMENT, F. (2012). The power of well-connected arguments: Early sensitivity to the connective because . Journal of experimental child psychology, 111(1), 128-135. BRUFFEE, K. A. (1984). Collaborative learning and the” conversation of

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Introduction: Improving Natural Knowledge: The Multiple Uses and Meanings of Plants for European Gardens

-508. CONAN, Michel, & KRESS, W. John (eds.) (2007), Botanical Progress, Horticultural Innovation and Cultural Change , Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. DEAR, Peter, (1991), ‘Narratives, Anecdotes, and Experiments. Turning Experience into Science in the Seventeenth Century,” in Peter Dear, The Literary Structure of a Scientific Argument. Historical Studies , Philadelphia: University Press of Pennsylvania, 1991, pp. 135-163. DI PALMA, Vittoria (2014), Wasteland: A History , New Haven: Yale University Press. DIXON HUNT, John

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‘Where have all the flowers grown’: the relationship between a plant and its place in sixteenth-century botanical treatises

Press, pp. 2-13. KLERK, Saskia (2014), ‘The Trouble with Opium. Taste, Reason and Experience in Late Galenic Pharmacology with Special Regard to the University of Leiden (1575–1625)’, Early Science and Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 287-316. KUSUKAWA, Sachiko (2012), Picturing the book of nature: image, text, and argument in sixteenth-century human anatomy and medical botany, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. LEU, Urs B. (2016), Conrad Gessner (1516-1565): Universalgelehrter und Naturforscher der Renaissance, Verlag Neue Zürcher Zeitung

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Determinants of voter turnout in Nsukka Council of Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria

access to networks, via which people can be drafted for political actions. Among these resources, civic skills are the most vital for swaying political participation. This argument was developed in the Civic Voluntarism Model (CVM) as expounded by Verba et al. (1995) and Putnam (2000) . In the CVM, the gaining of public skills occurs in non-political institutions, such as religious institutions, workplaces and voluntary organisations ( Verba et al. 1995 ). The study draws on these arguments on political participation and includes variables measuring individuals

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Selected aspects of water and sewage management in Poland in the context of sustainable urban development

.8% of Poland’s total population, and as much as 54.5% of the total urban population. The work assumes the hypothesis that positive changes occurred in water and sewage management in the examined cities. The main argument for such a hypothesis was the requirement in Poland to adapt the water and sewage infrastructure to EU requirements. 2 Methods and materials This work uses data from the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistics Office (Bank Danych Lokalnych Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego [BDL GUS]). They were used in the attempt to develop a summative index

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Optimal Spatial Allocation of Labour Force and Employment Protection Legislation (EPL)

)\times \,\text{Max}\,\mathbf{E}\left[ N\,LI\left( v*\left( p \right) \right)\left| EP\,L=P \right. \right]= \\=N\,LI\left( v*\left( p \right) \right)\times P\left[ N\,LI\left( v*\left( p1 \right) \right)\left| EP\,L=P \right. \right] \\\end{matrix}$$ In essence, the variable to maximise is a composition of a multivariate function, which involve two functions as an argument – the maximum NLI and the probability of obtaining it. Additionally, such a probability is determined by the level of employment protection (Blanchard, 2005; Pissarides, 2000 ) while the maximum NLI

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Imagine the Utopia! Rethinking Alain Badiou’s Theatre-Politics Isomorphism

Abstract

The presented article is a polemic with Alain Badiou’s concept of theatre-politics isomorphism. The author adapts the basic elements of Badiou’s philosophy (event, void Ø, truth etc.), provides an interpretation of his theory of theatre and presents crucial critical arguments to reveal the reductionism of Badiou’s philosophy. Subsequently, the author presents his alternative theory of theatre based on this ground. The article assumes that theatre performance is a live, truthful event, an encounter of humans experiencing an imagined Utopia based on their structural homology (shared materiality, phylogenetic archetypal memory, existentiality). The argument is supported by the recent research in neuroscience.

As the article argues, this Utopia has its social and political significance. The theatre is not political only if it constructs both a political body (crowd, public) and a discourse, as Badiou suggests. The author concludes that theatre is inherently political because its imaginative nature, which allows humans to experience the utopical attachment exceeding the subject-object boundaries. This imagined Utopia with its critical and anticipative power allows people to transcend their singularity to interpersonal and intercultural dialogue and universality, and it provokes their political imagination (in the sense of David Graeber). The author employs Erika Fischer-Lichte’s concept of performativity to present theatre performance as an event.

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From a Single Presentation of Poetry Up to Its Stylized Stage Image in the Form of Theatre Performance

Abstract

In the 1940s the Drama Company of the Slovak National Theatre introduced four poetry productions, which demonstrated the stage potential of the symbiosis of verse and a music-accompanied recitation in an original stage design solution. The single presentation of poetry of Poézia revolúcie a boja [The Poetry of Revolution and Fight, 1945] directed by Ján Jamnický and Pásmo poézie Janka Jesenského [The Show of Poetry by Janko Jesenský, 1946] directed by Jozef Budský were the first independent attempts at staging selected poetry. Besides recitation, they were dominated by the visual sign, powerful music sometimes accompanied by the singing of individuals and a voice band, and distinctive lighting design. Botto’s Smrť Jánošíkova [The Death of Jánošík] and Sládkovič’s Marína (both in 1948) directed by Jozef Budský displayed all features of synthetic theatre, combining recitation, voice band singing, scenic and visual solutions, metaphor, originally composed music inspired by the folk song, dance, film screening, and meaningful lighting. Jozef Budský indirectly built on Czech theatre, particularly on E. F. Burian. Both masterpieces by the authors of Štúr’s generation (Ján Botto, Andrej Sládkovič) aroused the interest of the expert public and the audience. It triggered arguments about excessive directorial intervention and insufficient ideological character, especially in the theatre form of Marína.

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Anti-theatre and Mythic Horizon

Abstract

The present paper starts, in its analysis, with the attempt to identify possible connections between the mythical universe and Eugène Ionesco’s play The Chairs. Noticing that the definition given to Ionesco’s theatre as a theatre of the absurd is outdated and that alternative concepts, such as parabolic drama, are already being proposed, we examine Ionesco’s theatricality from the perspective of the anti-theatre. Also, due to the fact that theatre is defined, by the representatives of political theatre, as ritual, we make a few considerations upon Ionesco’s anti-theatre viewed as anti-ritual. Afterwards, evaluating the different definitions of the myth and concluding that its definition is still a work in progress, we seek to extract arguments in order to look into Ionesco’s play from the point of view of the myth. Thus, we remark that a certain myth, underpinning the play, cannot be identified, but we have the possibility to identify and to argue that this play has a mythical horizon. At the same time, we take into consideration our personal experience with the performance of The Chairs that we put on stage, an experience that, also, constitutes a point of reference in our approach. Consequently, we suggest that references to a mythical horizon must be involved in the scenic interpretation of Eugène Ionesco's The Chairs.

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Other Stories: Experimental Forms of Contemporary Historying at the Crossroads Between Facts and Fictions

Summary

The process of questioning the authority of academic history—in the form in which it emerged at the turn of the 19th century—began in the 1970s, when Hayden White pointed out the rhetorical dimension of historical discourse. His British colleague Alun Munslow went a step further and argued that the ontological statuses of the past and history are so different that historical discourse cannot by any means be treated as representation of the past. As we have no access to that which happened, both historians and artists can only present the past in accordance with their views and opinions, the available rhetorical conventions, and means of expression.

The article revisits two examples of experimental history which Munslow mentioned in his The Future of History (2010): Robert A. Rosenstone’s Mirror in the Shrine (1988) and Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht’s In 1926 (1997). It allows reassessing their literary strategies in the context of a new wave of works written by historians and novelists who go beyond the fictional/factual dichotomy. The article focuses on Polish counterfactual writers of the last two decades, such as Wojciech Orliński, Jacek Dukaj, and Aleksander Głowacki. Their novels corroborate the main argument of the article about a turn which has been taking place in recent experimental historying: the loss of previous interest in formal innovations influenced by modernist avant-garde fiction. Instead, it concentrates on demonstrating the contingency of history to strategically extend the unknowability of the future or the past(s) and, as a result, change historying into speculative thinking.

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