This study arises out of the intention to examine the features of expert-lay interaction in a jury trial. The paper studies closing arguments constructed by legal experts as possible worlds which would be attractive for jurors. Theory of possible worlds is employed to present discourse practices as versions of the real world which may overlap, supplement or contradict one another. Legal experts construe and present possible worlds to jury members who deliver verdicts on the case, i.e. possess decisional power. Efficient involvement of jurors into the possible world constructed by the legal expert signals formation of discourse of concord. In order to make their own possible world more credible than the world of the procedural opponents, legal experts employ different interaction tools: description of legal concepts, empathy, appeals to social values, imperative and question utterances, personalization.
Two successive Japanese hostage cases in Iraq in April 2004, where hostage-takers demanded the withdrawal of the Self Defence Forces in return for release of the hostages, turned into a discussion about ‘self-responsibility’.
This paper concentrates on an analysis of the discursive representation of ‘self-responsibility’. The aim is to explain how the media discourse on the hostage crisis and the hostages’ ‘self-responsibility’ is regulating and determining social structures with respect to which tasks self-responsibility has to take over, on the basis of the critical discourse analysis proposed by Norman Fairclough
The argument is that the principle of self-responsibility has come to replace the hitherto valid responsibility of the state to protect its citizens. This is happening in favour of the newly emerging principle of not accepting terrorism and of fulfilling one’s duty as an international state.
This paper focuses on the contact between pre-imperial China and the peoples living on the steppes in her vicinity. For all the obscurity that had been shrouding the steppe inhabitants throughout centuries of historical scholarship, archaeological discoveries during the past century attest to their highly developed culture and economy and, what is more, make obvious that they had been entertaining close relations with the Chinese from as early as the second millennium BCE. Following a line of scholarship which has set out to redefine the role of the steppes in world history on the basis of this new data, this paper aims to demonstrate certain aspects of the important role they played in the history of China. Several very impactful innovations diffused to early China through interactions with the steppes, influencing Chinese history to a major degree. The paper specifically concentrates on a timeframe surrounding the Warring States Period (c. 500- 221 BCE), during which a couple of key innovations can be shown to have been adopted from the steppes. Furthermore, it illustrates the impact of these innovations on historical developments within China, thereby reinforcing the argument that the role of the steppes in Chinese history was one of tremendous importance.
Does the allocation of transboundary water strengthen cooperation among states or cause international conflicts? This is a question that is highly disputed among several scholars, whereas the arguments of both sides seem equally rational. An analogous dissent can be seen in the research area of the Mekong River. For that reason, it is rational to avoid engaging in this everlasting disagreement and rather look at the problematic question from another viewpoint. This article deals with the Mekong case from a relatively new angle by combining the concepts of power, hydro-hegemony, and coexistence of conflict and cooperation as proposed by the London Water Research Group for analysing the impacts of hydro-hegemony on water allocation. This approach enables us to observe that the power asymmetry deriving from four types of power (geographic, material, bargaining, and ideational power) gives China the position of the hydro-hegemon that is followed by five weaker non-hegemons in the following order: Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Despite the great number of collaborative groups, the non-hegemons have not been able to resist the hydro-hegemony of China effectively, as the unity of non-hegemons is mostly hampered by different national interests. Therefore, the bilateral relations of China with the other riparian states individually-especially with Laos and Cambodia-have been stronger than on the multilateral basis with the Mekong River Commission.
Kirino Natsuo, arguably one of the most popular contemporary Japanese authors in Western markets (a number of her novels having been translated into English, German, French, Italian, Dutch or Spanish, among other languages) who is often being recognised as a mystery writer, only enjoys limited acknowledgment for the thematic breadth and genre diversity of her work. Such description is not only inaccurate (Kirino published her last true mystery novel in 2002), but also manifests itself in the limited and underdeveloped treatment of her work in Western academic writing. This paper deals with Kirino Natsuo’s 2011 novel Poritikon (Politikon) and its analysis within the greater context of Kirino’s work. A focus is put upon introducing the novel as utopian fiction with the aim to illustrate ways in which Kirino Natsuo utilises utopian genre patterns as well as how her utopia works to provide a commentary on contemporary Japan. The utopian theme present in Poritikon makes the novel a rather untypical entry in Kirino’s oeuvre (although not a unique one, since her novels Tōkyō-jima [Tokyo Island, 2008 1 ] and Yasashii otona [Gentle Adults, 2010] also work with elements of utopian/dystopian fiction) as well as within the Japanese literary scene in general, and provides an interesting argument for Kirino Natsuo as more than ‘just’ a mystery writer.
BARCELÓ, J. A., BERNAL, F. D. C., DEL OLMO, R., MAMELI, L., QUESADA, F. M., POZA, D., & VILÀ, X. (2014). Social Interaction in Hunter-Gatherer Societies Simulating the Consequences of Cooperation and Social Aggregation. Social Science Computer Review, 32(3), 417-436.
BERNARD, S., MERCIER, H., & CLÉMENT, F. (2012). The power of well-connected arguments: Early sensitivity to the connective because . Journal of experimental child psychology, 111(1), 128-135.
BRUFFEE, K. A. (1984). Collaborative learning and the” conversation of
sacred nation, emphasizing universal humanitarian values and the sacredness of the person , hence also the desacralization of the state ( Joas 2019 ).
His argument follows along historical trajectories similar to Samuel Moyn’s analysis of human rights as the last utopia ( Moyn 2010 ), yet within a different theoretical framework. Setting out from Durkheim’s understanding of the social construction of a sacred space, Joas undertakes a detailed and critical analysis of Weber’s theory of secularization as disenchantment of the world. He points out that the idea that
Faßmann, Heinz. 2. Österreichischer Migrations- und Integrationsbericht 2001-2006. Vienna: Vienna University Press, 2007
Gergen, Kenneth J. and Mary Gergen. Einführung in den sozialen Konstruktionismus. Heidelberg: Carl-Auer Verlag, 2009
Hall, Stuart. “Wer braucht ‘Identität’?” In Stuart Hall: Ideologie, Identität, Repräsentation. Ausgewählte Schriften 4, edited by Juha Koivisto and Andreas Merkens. Hamburg: Argument Verlag, 2004, pp. 167-187
Harrell, Stevan. Cultural Encounters on China’s Ethnic Frontiers. Seattle and