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R eferences 1. Hietbrink F, Koenderman L, Rijkers GT, Leenen LPH. Trauma: the role of the innate immune system. World J Emerg Surg, 2006;1:15. 2. Zhang G, Gurtu V, Kain SR, Yan G. Early detection of apoptosis using afluorescent conjugate of Annexin V. Bio Techniques. 1997;23:525-31. 3. Ulukaya E, Acilan C, Ari F, İkitimur E, Yilmaz Y. A glance at the methods for detection of apoptosis qualitatively and quantitatively. Turk J Biochem. 2011;36:261–9. 4. Rieger AM, Nelson KL, Konowalchuk JD, Barreda DR. Modified Annexin V/Propidium Iodide apoptosis assay for

Abstract

Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been used extensively as a dietary supplement for athletes and physically active people. HMB is a leucine metabolite, which is one of three branched chain amino acids. HMB plays multiple roles in the human body of which most important ones include protein metabolism, insulin activity and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The ergogenic effects of HMB supplementation are related to the enhancement of sarcolemma integrity, inhibition of protein degradation (ubiquitin pathway), decreased cell apoptosis, increased protein synthesis (mTOR pathway), stimulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis and enhancement of muscle stem cells proliferation and differentiation. HMB supplementation has been carried out with various groups of athletes. In endurance and martial arts athletes, HMB supplementation revealed positive effects on specific aerobic capacity variables. Positive results were also disclosed in resistance trained athletes, where changes in strength, body fat and muscle mass as well as anaerobic performance and power output were observed. The purpose of this review was to present the main mechanisms of HMB action, especially related to muscle protein synthesis and degradation, and ergogenic effects on different types of sports and physical activities.

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decreases the levels of ROS by inhibiting mitochondrial complex IV and increasing SOD activities in cardiomyocytes under ischemia/reperfusion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 2012;421:164-169. 8. Somaio Neto F, Ikejiri AT, Bertoletto PR, et al. Gene expression related to oxidative stress in the heart of mice after intestinal ischemia. Arq Bras Cardiol . 2014;102:165-173. 9. Wang L, Huang H, Fan Y, et al. Effects of Downregulation of MicroRNA-181a on H 2 O 2 -Induced H9c2 Cell Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway. Oxid Med Cell Longev . 2014;2014:960362. 10

of 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide and various antibiotics on the formation of biofilms and production of exopolysaccharide and pyocyanin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 2011;55:3015-3017. 24. Jakobsen TH, van Gennip M, Phipps RK, et al. Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 2012;56:2314-2325. 25. Yang JY, Della-Fera MA, Nelson-Dooley C, et al. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induced by ajoene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Obesity . 2006;14:388-397. 26. Jakobsen

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