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Antioxidants and Antioxidant Capacity of Human Milk / Antioksidansi i antioksidativni kapacitet humanog mleka

References 1. Gülçin İ.Antioxidant activity of food constituents: an overview. Arch Toxicol 2012; 86: 345-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-011-0774-2 2. Granot E, Kohen R. Oxidative stress in childhoodin health and disease states. Clin Nutr 2004; 23: 3-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5614(03)00097-9 3. Matés J M , Pérez-Gómez C, Núñez de Castro I.Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases. ClinBiochem 1999; 32: 595-603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-9120(99)00075-2 4. Sastre J, Pallardó FV

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Oxidative Stress, Skin Aging and Antioxidant Therapy / Oksidacioni Stres, Starenje Kože I Antioksidaciona Terapija

. The hairless mouse and photoaging. Photochem Photobiol 1991;54:1109-1118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1991.tb02134.x 5. Rattan SI. Theories of biological aging: genes, proteins, and free radicals. Free Radic Res 2006; 40:1230-1238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715760600911303 6. Kohen R. Skin antioxidants: their role in aging and in oxidative stress-new approaches for their evaluation. Biomed Pharmacother 1999;53:181-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0753-3322(99)80087-0 7. Stadtman ER. Protein oxidation and

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Short Period Storage Impact on Bioactive Constituents from Bilberries and Blueberries

;16:417-428. 4 Dinkova R, Heffels P, Shikov V, Weber F, Schieber A, Mihalev K - Effect of enzyme-assisted extraction on the chilled storage stability of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) anthocyanins in skin extracts and freshly pressed juices. Food Res Int. 2014;65:35-41. 5 Syamaladevi RM, Andrews PK, Davies NM, Walters T, Sablani SS - Storage effects on anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activity of thermally processed conventional and organic blueberries. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92(4):916-924. 6 Manhita AC, Teixeira DM, da Costa CT

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Is the Oxidative Stress Really a Disease?

References 1. Pham-Huy LA, He H, Pham-Huy C. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci. 2008;4:89-96. 2. Gülçin İ. Antioxidant activity of food constituents: an overview. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86(3):345-391. 3. Bonomini F, Tengattini S, Fabiano A, Bianchi R, Rezzaniet R. Atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:381-390. 4. Radi R. Peroxynitrite, a Stealthy Biological Oxidant. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:26464-26472. 5. Pacher P, Beckman JS

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Antioxidant Activity of Dry Birch (Betula Pendula) Leaves Extract

REFERENCES 1. Culpeper N. Culpeper’s complete herbal. Hertford-shire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd; 1995. 2. Acquaviva R, Menichini F, Ragusa S, et al. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Betula aetnensis Rafin. (Betulaceae) leaves extract. Nat Prod Res 2012;27(4-5):475-9. 3. Ju EM, Lee SE, Hwang HJ, et al. Antioxidant and anticancer activity of extract from Betula platyphyll a var. japonica. Life Sci 2004;74:1013-26. 4. Duric K, Kovac-Besovic E, Niksic H, Sofic E. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts, decoction and isolated

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Downregulation in the mRNA expression of nuclear hormone receptor liver-X-receptor alpha (LXR-α) by TNF-α is abolished by the antioxidant kaempferol, but not ascorbic acid, in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells

Abstract

Background: Liver-X-Receptor alpha (LXR-α) plays an essential role in cholesterol metabolism, bile acids, and lipid synthesis. The proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α has been shown to downregulate the expression of LXR-α.

Objectives: We investigated the effects of antioxidants kaempferol and ascorbic acid on LXR-α mRNA expression in TNF-α stimulated HepG2 cells.

Methods: After the cells have reached 60% to 70% confluence, they were treated with 20 ng/ml of TNF-α for 24 hours prior to the stimulation with different concentrations of kaempferol (1 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, and 20 μM) or ascorbic acid (15 μM, 150 μM, and 1500 μM) for another 24 hours. Total RNA was isolated using TRI Reagent LS (Molecular Research Centre). Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR was then conducted to determine the mRNA expression of LXR- α after their respective treatments.

Results: Kaempferol was able to relieve the downregulatory action of TNF-α on LXR-α in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose of kaempferol (20 μM) almost abolished the action of TNF-α by restoring the levels of LXR-α to its basal levels in HepG2 cells. Twenty μM of kaempferol alone did not produce any significant effect on LXR-α mRNA expression. In contrast, ascorbic acid was unable to counteract the action of TNF-α. In contrast to kaempferol, the highest dose of ascorbic acid (1500 μM) suppressed the expression of LXR-α mRNA in TNF-α stimulated HepG2 cells to 0.571-fold compared with no treatment. In the presence of 1500 μM of ascorbic acid alone, LXR-α mRNA expression was also significantly suppressed to 0.320-fold.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that kaempferol, but not ascorbic acid, was able to alleviate the TNF-α downregulatory effects on LXR-α mRNA in HepG2 cells. Kaempferol can be a better anti-inflammatory agent than ascorbic acid.

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Phenolic and Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity of Daphne Blagayana Growing in Serbia

References 1. Nobuyuki I, Shoji F, Hiroyuki T. Carcinogenicity and modification of the carcinogenic response by BHA, BHT and other antioxidants. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 1985; 15: 109-150. 2. Gottschling M, Hilger HH, Wolf M, Diane N. Secondary structure of the its1 transcript and its application in a reconstruction of the phylogeny of boraginales. Plant Biology 2001; 3: 629-636. 3. Iqbal K, Nawaz SA, Malik A, Riaz N, Mukhtar N, Mohammad P. Choudhary, isolation and lipoxygenase-inhibition studies of

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Garcinia Kola Extracts Improve Biochemical Markers Associated with Erectile Function: Possible Applications in Clinical Treatment?

://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12772 12. Ajiboye BO, Ojo OA, Okesola MA, et al. Ethyl acetate leaf fraction of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) I. M. Johnst: antioxidant potential, inhibitory activities of key enzymes on carbohydrate metabolism, cholinergic, monoaminergic, purinergic and chemical finger-printing. Int J Food Properties 2018; 21: 1697-715. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2018.1504787 13. Irvine FR. Woody plants of Ghana. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1961: 146. 14. Odebunmi EO, Oluwaniyi OO, Awolola GV, et al. Proximate and nutritional

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Anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of foliar extract from a tropical species: Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) grown in Algeria

References 1. Yoshikawa T, Naito Y. What Is Oxidative Stress? J Am Vet Med Assoc . 2002;45(7):271-6. 2. Saxena M, Saxena J, Pradhan A. Flavonoids and phenolic acids as antioxidants in plants and human health. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res . 2012;16(2):130-4. 3. Verdile G, Keane KN, Cruzat VF, Medic S, Sabale M, Rowles J. et al. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: The Molecular Connectivity between Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Alzheimer’s Disease. Mediators Inflamm . 2015:1-17. 4. EtindelSosso FA, Nakamura O, Nakamura M. Epidemiology of

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Bagged Aronia Melanocarpa Tea: Phenolic Profileand Antioxidant Activity / Aronia Melanocarpa Filter Čaj: Fenolni Profil I Antioksidativna Aktivnost

. Flavonoids from black chokeberries, Aronia melanocarpa. J Food Compost Anal 2005; 18:61-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2003.12.003 4. Oszmianski J, Wojdylo A. Aronia Melanocarpaphenolics and their antioxidant activity. Eur Food Res Technol 2005; 221: 809-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-005-0002-5 5. Szajdek A, Borowska EJ. Bioactive Compounds and Health-Promoting Properties of Berry Fruits: A Review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2008; 63:147-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-008-0097-5 6. Kokotkiewicz A, Jaremicz Z

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