Marcin Ożarowski, Aurelia Pietrowiak, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Douglas Sigueira De A. Chaves, Anna Krajewska-Patan, Karolina Wielgus and Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz
Introduction:. It is well documented that many species from Passifloraceae family can provide edible and nutritious fruits while the leaves of cultivated plants are renewable and waste material. This biomass may be further used in various sectors, especially as a bioactive food additive and as source of innovative pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or feed additives. The biomaterials and green chemistry are new sectors bioeconomy according to the high-level horizontal strategies and bio-based industries in Europe. In recent years, attention has been paid to the biological activity and phytochemical profiles of extracts from different species of Passiflora. However, there is little comparative studies using the same procedures and techniques in the same laboratory conditions for study of plant material obtained from the similar greenhouse conditions.
Objective: This study was focused on the examination of antioxidative activities of low concentrations of crude extracts from leaves of Passiflora incarnata L., Passiflora caerulea L., and Passiflora alata Curtis.
Methods: The activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. Results of study were supported by estimation of chemical composition with secondary metabolites profiling in extracts which were carried out previously for the same extracts from three Passiflora species. One-way ANOVA analysis revealed significant differences in the antioxidant activity of various concentrations of the extracts using the DPPH and ABTS radical models, and FRAP method.
Results: Measurement of antioxidant capacity (expressed as trolox equivalent, TE) showed that the most active was extract of P. caerulea > P. alata > P. incarnata. Phytochemical analysis for extracts of P. caerulea and P. incarnata showed greater similarities in metabolites content than P. alata. However, comparative statistical analysis of antioxidant activity showed that despite this phytochemical similarities, extract from P. alata leaves had higher activities than extract from leaves P. incarnata. Antioxidant effect of extract from P. alata can be explain by terpenoids presented in this extract. In this work, there have been discussed activities against Acanthamoeba castellanii strain, antibacterial and antifungal activities against selected clinical microorganisms (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, Micro-sporum gypseum), and anti-leukemic activities tested in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines for this extracts, which have been described in previous authors’ publications.
Conclusion: Our current and previous studies showed that the same crude extracts from leaves of P. alata, P. caerulea, P. incarnata exerted not only antioxidant potential in vitro but also few interesting properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, amoebostatic, amoebicidal activities, which indicate the possibility of using these extracts in both a healthy diet and natural cosmetics. Leaves of this species may become an interesting source of biomaterials which can exert health-promoting effects.