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-abdominal infection is frequently extremely difficult to treat [ 1 ], and the mortality rate is reportedly high [ 2 ]. In an animal sepsis model of intra-abdominal infection, intra-abdominal fluid contained larger amounts of cytokines than seen in circulating blood [ 8 ]. These cytokines are continuously transferred into circulating blood, causing damage to the vascular endothelium of internal organs. In the lungs, this increases vascular permeability, increasing the volume of interstitial fluid and causing the appearance of diffuse infiltration on CT [ 9 ]. In particular, if

et al . [ 76 ] have reported EUS-guided drainage of an abdominal fluid collection following a Whipple procedure using an Olympus GF-UCT240 EUS endoscope (GF-UCT240, Olympus, UK), which was passed through the gastrojejunostomy. The serosanguinous collection was completely aspirated using a 19-gauge Echotip-Ultra needle (Wilson-Cook, Ireland) under EUS guidance. The amylase level in the fluid was normal, and all of the cultures were sterile. [ 76 ] Especially for pancreatobiliary diseases, Ramesh et al . [ 77 ] have recommended that traditional per-os EUS should

used, and measurements Data collected included demographic data (age, sex), comorbidities, source of sepsis, sodium levels on days one, three, and seven. The source of sepsis was confirmed via a routine sepsis workup that included radiological evidence, culture and sensitivity of blood, sputum, and urine, abdominal fluid drain culture, tissue culture, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and cultures for suspected cases. Various variables including demographic data, comorbidities, source of sepsis, and sodium levels on days 1, 3, and 7 were assessed against the

be found incidentally by imaging performed in otherwise asymptomatic patients. The examination findings may include abdominal tenderness, palpable mass, and abdominal fluid collection. [ 5 ] There are various therapeutic strategies that can be employed in patients with pseudocyst and WON. In patients with mild symptoms, conservative management can be employed with good clinical outcome. [ 7 ] On the other hand, patients with severe symptoms resulting from pseudocyst and WON including infection and gastric outlet obstruction may require additional therapeutic