Dongyun Guo, Yang Ju, Chengju Fu, Zhixiong Huang and Lianmeng Zhang
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an n-type semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.37 eV and a large exciton binding energy (60 meV). ZnOthinfilms have been widely applied in high technology such as optoelectronic devices, solar cells, piezoelectric transducers and gas sensors [ 1 – 7 ]. Many techniques have been utilized to prepare ZnOthinfilms, such as metal organic chemical vapor deposition, pulsed laser deposition, sputtering, hydrothermal, sol-gel method, etc. [ 8 – 18 ]. Due to the low cost and simple equipment, sol-gel method has been
Fucheng Yu, Hailong Hu, Bolong Wang, Haishan Li, Tianyun Song, Boyu Xu, Ling He, Shu Wang and Hongyan Duan
Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were prepared on silica substrates by sol-gel method. The films showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation along c-axis. Suitable Al doping dramatically improved the crystal quality compared to the undoped ZnO films. Dependent on the Al dopant concentration, the diffraction peak of (0 0 2) plane in XRD spectra showed at first right-shifting and then left-shifting, which was attributed to the change in defect concentration induced by the Al dopant. Photocatalytic properties of the AZO film were characterized by degradation of methyl orange (MO) under simulated solar light. The transmittance of the films was enhanced by the Al doping, and the maximum transmittance of 80 % in the visible region was observed in the sample with Al concentration of 1.5 at.% (mole fraction). The film with 1.5 at.% Al doping achieved also maximum photocatalytic activity of 68.6 % under solar light. The changes in the film parameters can be attributed to the variation in defect concentration induced by different Al doping content.
Akhalakur Rahman Ansari, Shahir Hussain, Mohd. Imran, Attieh A. Al-Ghamdi and Mohammed Rehaan Chandan
In this article, ZnO thin-film deposition on a glass substrate was done using microwave induced oxygen plasma based CVD system. The prepared thin-films were tested in terms of crystallinity and optical properties by varying the microwave power. The effect of power variation on the morphology and size of final products was carefully investigated. The crystal structure, chemical composition and morphology of the final products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). This technique confirmed the presence of hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals in all the thin-films. The minimum crystallite grain size as obtained from the XRD measurements was ~9.7 nm and the average diameter was ~18 nm.
Undoped ZnO thin films have been prepared on glass substrates at different substrate temperatures by spray pyrolysis method. The effect of temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of n-type ZnO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the ZnO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements showed that the surface morphology of the films changed with temperature. The studies demonstrated that the ZnO film had a transmission of about 85 % and energy gap of 3.28 eV at 450 °C. The RBS measurements revealed that ZnO layers with a thickness up to 200 nm had a good stoichiometry.
Nasrul Haque Mia, Sardar Masud Rana, Firoz Pervez, Mohammad Reefaz Rahman, Khalid Hossain, Abdul Al Mortuza, Mohammad Khairul Basher and Mahbubul Hoq
Zinc oxide thin films with different thicknesses were prepared on microscopic glass slides by sol-gel spin coating method, then hydrothermal process was applied to produce zinc oxide nanorod arrays. The nanorod thin films were characterized by various spectroscopic methods of analysis. From the images of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), it was observed that for the film thickness up to 200 nm the formed nanorods with wurtzite hexagonal structure were uniformly distributed over the entire surface substrate. From X-ray diffraction analysis it was revealed that the thin films had good polycrystalline nature with highly preferred c-axis orientation along (0 0 2) plane. The optical characterization done by UV-Vis spectrometer showed that all the films had high transparency of 83 % to 96 % in the visible region and sharp cut off at ultraviolet region of electromagnetic spectrum. The band gap of the films decreased as their thickness increased. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed the presence of zinc and oxygen elements in the films and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed the chemical composition of ZnO in the film.
Munirah, Ziaul Raza Khan, Anver Aziz, Mohd. Shahid Khan and M.U. Khandaker
optoelectronics [ 1 – 4 ]. Such outstanding properties and applications of ZnO, made it popular among material researchers. Nowadays, ZnOthinfilms have been under extensive investigation for reliable optoelectronic device manufacturing. ZnOthinfilms have been grown by various methods, such as rf sputtering  , PLD  , spray pyrolysis  , sol-gel  . Sol-gel method is found to be the most suitable for the growth of ZnOthinfilms, as it allows fabrication of thin films with improved structural, optical and electrical properties. From physical appearance, the
S. Benzitouni, M. Zaabat, A. Mahdjoub, A. Benaboud and B. Boudine
Heavily In doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating method with different concentrations of indium. The effect of heavy In doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of ZnO was discussed on the basis of XRD, AFM, UV-Vis spectra and Hall effect measurements. The diffraction patterns of all deposited films were indexed to the ZnO wurtzite structure. However, high In doping damaged the films crystallinity. The highest optical transmittance observed in the visible region (>93 %) exceeded that of ITO: the absolute rival of the most commercial TCOs. The grain size significantly decreased from 140 nm for undoped ZnO to 17.1 nm for IZO with the greatest In ratio. The roughness decreased with increasing In atomic ratio, indicating an improvement in the surface quality. Among all synthesized films, the sample obtained with 11 at.% indium showed the best TCO properties: the highest transmittance (93.5 %) and the lowest resistivity (0.41 Ωcm) with a carrier concentration of 2.4 × 1017 cm−3. These results could be a promising solution for possible photonic and optoelectronic applications.
Syed Mansoor Ali, W. A. Farooq, M. R. Baig, M.A. Shar, M. Atif, S. S. Alghamdi, M. S. Algarawi, Naeem Ur-Rehman and Muhammad Hammad Aziz
We have investigated the influence of Ag doping on zinc oxide thin films. Pure and Ag doped, preferentially oriented transparent zinc oxide thin films were prepared by sol gel technique on a glass substrate using diethyl amine as a stabilizer. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films with hexagonal wurtzite type structure were polycrystalline in nature with a preferred grain orientation in the 101 direction. The crystallite sizes decreased from 34 nm to 27 nm after silver doping. Both photoluminescence and optical transmission measurements showed that the band gap increased after the Ag doping. The structure and optical characterization studies clearly indicated the incorporation of Ag in ZnO. Hence, the observed increase in the optical band gap and decrease in crystallite size can be directly attributed to the effect of Ag ion incorporation into the ZnO lattice.
Munirah Munirah, Ziaul Khan, Mohd. Khan and Anver Aziz
This paper describes the growth of Cd doped ZnO thin films on a glass substrate via sol-gel spin coating technique. The effect of Cd doping on ZnO thin films was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, I–V characteristics and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the films have preferred orientation along (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The average crystallite sizes decreased from 24 nm to 9 nm, upon increasing of Cd doping. The films transmittance was found to be very high (92 to 95 %) in the visible region of solar spectrum. The optical band gap of ZnO and Cd doped ZnO thin films was calculated using the transmittance spectra and was found to be in the range of 3.30 to 2.77 eV. On increasing Cd concentration in ZnO binary system, the absorption edge of the films showed the red shifting. Photoluminescence spectra of the films showed the characteristic band edge emission centred over 377 to 448 nm. Electrical characterization revealed that the films had semiconducting and light sensitive behaviour.
An aqueous colloidal solution was prepared at 80 °C and pH = 9 from suitable chemical compounds to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals and thin films. The ZnO crystals were grown in the colloidal solution under special conditions. Their micrographs showed ZnO rods with hexagonal structure. The number of the rods, increased over time. The ZnO thin films were produced on glass substrates in the same colloidal solution using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in different deposition times. The produced films were post-annealed for about one hour at 400 °C. Crystalline structure, phase transitions and nanostructure of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZnO wurtzite structure was dominant, and by increasing the deposition time, the films became more crystalline. Nanostructure of the films changed from rod to wire and transformed into pyramid-like structures. Also, morphology of the films changed and re-nucleation ocurred. Optical reflectance was measured in the wavelength of 300 nm to 800 nm with a spectrophotometer. Other optical properties and optical band gaps were calculated using Kramers-Kronig relation on reflectivity curves. Second harmonic generation was calculated by Z-scan technique. Nonlinear refraction and real part of susceptibilities were obtained. Both positive and negative nonlinear refractions appeared in the ZnO films. It is important for the use in optoelectronic devices. Electronic properties were assessed by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was used for the exchange-correlation potential calculation. The band gap structure and density of states were calculated.