Danutė Marčiulionienė, Danguolė Montvydienė, Nijolė Kazlauskienė, Benedikta Lukšienė, Dalia Jasinevičienė and Stasys Tautkus
M., 2012: Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic organisms of different trophiclevels and potential health risk assessment from Taihu lake, China. - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 81: 55-64.
Tester M., Davenport R.A., 2003: Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. - Annals of Botany, 91: 503-527.
Vosyliene M.Z., Kazlauskiene N., Joksas K., 2005: Toxic effects of crude oil combined with oil cleaner simple green on yolk-sac larvae and adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Maria Špoljar, Jelena Fressl, Tvrtko Dražina, Matija Meseljević and Zlatko Grčić
Epiphytic metazoans on emergent macrophytes in oxbow lakes of the Krapina River, Croatia: differences related to plant species and limnological conditions
This study investigated the structure of the epiphytic metazoans on emerged macrophytes in the littoral zone of two oxbow lakes with different trophic levels. Differences in the diversity and density of the epiphytic metazoans were analyzed in relation to plant architecture (simple or complex stems), food resources (algae and detritus) and water characteristics (transparency and derived trophic state index). A significant negative correlation was found between detritus on plants as food resource, and diversity and density of epiphytic metazoans, indicating grazing of microphagous species. Rotifers dominated in diversity and density in the epiphyton on all habitats. Total density of metazoans, rotifers and copepods in epiphyton were significantly higher on Mentha in mesotrophic lake than on Iris in a eutrophic lake. We presume that macrophyte belt width and trophic state governed biotic interactions and consequently epiphytic assemblages more strongly than macrophyte architecture. However, a Mentha habitat showed a slightly higher density and diversity of epiphytic metazoans in relation to Iris at the same site, but these differences were not significant.
Shabnam Abbasi, Saeed Afsharzadeh and Hojjatollah Saeidi
lakes of contrasting trophiclevels. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 57, 60–66.
Hangelbroek, H., Ouborg, N. J., Santamaria. L., Schwenk, K., 2002: Clonal diversity and structure within a population of pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus foraged by bewicks swans. Molecular Ecology 11, 2137–2150.
Hettiarachchi, P., Triest, L., 1991: Isozyme polymorphism in the genus Potamogeton (Potamogetonaceae). Opera Botanica 4, 87–114.
Jaccard, P., 1908: Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44
Alvin J. Helden, Annette Anderson, John Finn and Gordon Purvis
., Ramsay, A.J., Tscheulin, T., Parkinson, A., Smith, R.E.N., Gundrey, A.L., Brown, V.K. and Tallowin, J.R. 2007a. The potential of grass field margin management for enhancing beetle diversity in intensive livestock farms. Journal of Applied Ecology 44 : 60-69.
Woodcock, B.A., Potts, S.G., Tscheulin, T., Pilgrim, E., Ramsey, A.J., Harrison-Cripps, J., Brown, V.K. and Tallowin, J.R. 2009. Responses of invertebrate trophiclevel, feeding guild and body size to the management of improved grassland field margins. Journal of Applied Ecology 46 : 920
Zsuzsanna Kókai, István Bácsi, Péter Török, Krisztina Buczkó, Enikő T-Krasznai, Csaba Balogh, Béla Tóthmérész and Viktória Béres
Alto Adige/Südtirol (Northern Italy): characterization of assemblages and their application for biological quality assessment in the context of the Water Framework Directive. Hydrobiologia 695, 153-170.
BERTHON, V., BOUCHEZ, A., RIMET, F., 2011: Using diatom life-forms and ecological guilds to assess organic pollution and trophiclevel in rivers: a case study of rivers in south-eastern France. Hydrobiologia 673, 259-271.
B-BÉRES, V., TÖRÖK, P., KÓKAI, ZS., T-KRASZNAI, E., TÓTHMÉRÉSZ, B., BÁCSI, I., 2014: Ecological behaviour of diatom
Asch, van, M. 2007. Seasonal synchronization between trophiclevels under climate change: genetic and environmental effects on winter moth egg hatching. Dissertations University Groningen.
Awmack C. S., Woodcock C. M., Harrington R. 1997. Climate change may increase vulnerability of aphids to natural enemies. Ecological Entomology, 22: 366-368.
Ayres M. P., Lombardero M. J. 2000. Assessing the consequences of global change for forest disturbance from herbivores and pathogens. The science of
In this review, I approach the role of phenotypic plasticity as a key aspect of the conceptual framework of evolutionary biology. The concept of phenotypic plasticity is related to other relevant concepts of contemporary research in evolutionary biology, such as assimilation, genetic accommodation and canalization, evolutionary robustness, evolvability, evolutionary capacitance and niche construction. Although not always adaptive, phenotypic plasticity can promote the integration of these concepts to represent some of the dynamics of evolution, which can be visualized through the use of a conceptual map. Although the use of conceptual maps is common in areas of knowledge such as psychology and education, their application in evolutionary biology can lead to a better understanding of the processes and conceptual interactions of the complex dynamics of evolution. The conceptual map I present here includes environmental variability and variation, phenotypic plasticity and natural selection as key concepts in evolutionary biology. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity is important to ecology at all levels of organization, from morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations that influence the distribution and abundance of populations to the structuring of assemblages and communities and the flow of energy through trophic levels. Consequently, phenotypic plasticity is important for maintaining ecological processes and interactions that influence the complexity of biological diversity. In addition, because it is a typical occurrence and manifests itself through environmental variation in conditions and resources, plasticity must be taken into account in the development of management and conservation strategies at local and global levels.
. [in:] Welzer H. Wojny klimatyczne. Za co będziemy zabijać w XXI wieku ? Wyd. Krytyki Politycznej, Warszawa: 5-13.
Bonhommeau S., Dubroca L., Le Pape O., Barde J., Kaplan D.M., Chassot E., Nieblas A.-E., Kaplan D.M. 2013. Eating up the world’s food web and the human trophiclevel. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110: 20617-20620.
Butzer K.W., Endfield G.H. 2012. Critical perspectives on historical collapse. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109(10): 3628-3631.
Cadotte M.W., Cardinale B. J., Oakley T.H. 2008. Evolutionary history and the effect of biodiversity
Piret Vacht, Annely Kuu, Liisa Puusepp, Tiiu Koff, Sander Kutti, Jane Raamets and Liisa Küttim
Zackenberg (Northeast Greenland). Polar Biology, 23, 392-400.
Van Straalen, N.M. & Van Wensem, J. (1986) Heavy Metal Content of Forest Litter Arthropods as Related to Body-Size and TrophicLevel. Environmental Pollution, 42, 209-221.
Vanker, S., Enneveer, M. & Mäsak, M. (2013) Implementation of measures to reduce aviation noise at Tallinn airport. In: M.J. Crocker (Ed.), Book of Abstracts of 20th International Congress on Sound & Vibration (7-11 July 2013, Bangkok, Thailand), International Institute of Acoustics and Vibration, Bangkok, 400
Rogério Parentoni Martins, Rosana Tidon and José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho
trophiclevels: Selection against instability explains the pattern. Food Webs, 1, 10-17.
Bradshaw, A.D. (1965) Evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Advances in Genetics, 13, 115-155.
Buiatti, M & Buiatti, M. (2008) Chance vs. necessity in living systems: A false antinomy. Rivista di Biologia/Biology, Forum, 101, 29-66.
Charlesworth, B. & Jain, K. (2014) Purifying selection, drift, and reversible mutation with arbitrarily high mutation rates. Genetics ,1989, 1587-1602.