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In practice, in the design stage of revitalization, renovation or reinforcement, there is often a need to determine the strength of steel as well as its weldability. The strength of steel can be determined in two ways: directly through destructive testing or indirectly - by the Brinell hardness test. In the case of weldability, this turns out to be much more difficult, because there are three groups of factors which determine this property, i.e.: local weldability, operative weldability, and overall weldability. This paper presents the results of the verification of the relationship between the hardness and strength of three grades of steel from the early twentieth century. The evaluation of the overall weldability of structural steels is discussed in an analytical approach preceding costly weldability tests. An assessment based on selected indicators of weldability can only lead to confusion.

6. REFERENCES [1] Bush TD, Jones EA, Jirsa JO . Behavior of RC frame strengthened using structural-steel bracing . J Struct Eng-ASCE 1991 ;117(4):1115–26 [2] Badoux M, Jirsa JO . Steel bracing of RC frames for seismic retrofitting . J Struct Eng-ASCE 1990 ;116(1):55–74 [3] Mario D’Aniello – Steel Dissipative Bracing Systems for Seismic Retro fitting of Existing Structures: Theory and Testing [4] Dr. Durgesh C Rai , Review of Documents on Seismic Strengthening of Existing Buildings Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur


The problem of transition zone of structural steel element connected to concrete is discussed in the following paper. This zone may be located for instance in specific bridge composite girder. In such case the composite beam passes smoothly into concrete beam. Because of several dowels usage in the transition zone, the problem of uneven force distribution were discussed through analogy to bolted and welded connections. The authors present innovative solution of transition zone and discuss the results, with emphasis put on the transition zone structural response in term of bending capacity, failure model and force distribution on the connection length. The article wider the already executed experimental test and presents its newest results.

rolled products of structural steels - Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels . 9. EN 10088-4:2009. Stainless steels – Part 4: Technical delivery conditions for sheet/plate and strip of corrosion resisting steels for construction purposes . 10. Esslinger M., Geier B.: Postbuckling behaviour of structures , Wien/New York, Springer-Verlag, 1975. 11. Franke A. A.: Vergleichende experimentelle und numerische Untersuchungen zur Ermittlung von zusätzlichen Faktoren unter der Berücksichtigung des elastischen Nachbeulverhaltens von offenen

Telford Publishing 2007. 9. Szafran J., Rykaluk K.: Diagonal bracing members of lattice towers-analytical versus experimental studies , in: Recent Progress in Steel and Composite Structures, edit. M. Giżejowski, A. Kozłowski, J. Marcinowski, J. Ziółko, Zielona Góra, CRC Press/Balkema Taylor&Francis Group 2016, 94-95. 10. Szafran J., Rykaluk K.: A full-scale experiment of a lattice telecommunication tower under breaking load , Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 120, (2016) 160-175. 11. Wald F. et al.: Benchmark cases for advanced design of structural steel

REFERENCES 1. Abdelbaky, H. Nonlinear micromechanics-based finite element analysis of the interfacial behavior of FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete beams . Department of civil engineering, Sherbrook University. 2. Ahmadi, C, Kheyroddin, A and Naderpour, H 2010. Investigation the behavior and comparison of reliable codes on concrete-steel composite columns. Journal of Modeling in Engineering , 8(22) , 37-49. 3. AISC 360-05 2005. Specification for structural steel buildings . Chicago, Illinois, USA: America Institute for Steel Construction, ANSI/AISC 360

REFERENCES 1. AISC, Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Applications. Chicago, Illinois, ANSI/AISC 358, 2016. 2. AISC, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, Chicago, Illinois: ANSI/AISC 360, 2016. 3. ANSYS. Multiphysics 12.1. Canonsber: Ansys Inc, 2010. 4. ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia, 2010. 5. ATC 24, Guidelines for Cyclic Seismic Testing of Components of Steel Structures, Applied Technology Council, 1992. 6

frames, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67: 741-758, 2011. 5. EN 1993-1-4. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures, Part 1.4: General rules, Supplementary Rules for Stainless steels. Brussels: CEN. 6. EN 1993-1-5. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures, Part 1.5: Plated structural elements. Brussels: CEN. 7. EN 1993-1-8.: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-8: Design of joints. Brussels: CEN, 2005. 8. Faella C., PilusoV., Rizzano G.: Structural steel semi rigid connections: Theory, design and software. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000. 9. Frye M. J

-1-2 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-2: General rules – Structural fire design. 39. EN 1999-1-2 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures - Part 1-2: General rules – Structural fire design. 40. Brnic J., Turkalj G., Canadija M., Lanc D.: AISI 316Ti (1.4571) steel Mechanical, creep and fracture properties versus temperature , Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67 (2011) 1948-1952. 41. EN 10088-1:2014, Stainless steels. List of stainless steels. 42. EN 10025-2:2007, European standard for hot-rolled structural steel. Part 2 - Technical delivery