Ilona Bachanek, Marcin Barszcz, Marcin Taciak, Anna Tuśnio and Jacek Skomiał
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of dietary level of two types of inulin differing in the degree of polymerization (DP) on microbial activity in the large intestine of chicks. The experiment was performed on 70 one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks divided into 7 groups fed starter-type diets without inulin addition or supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% of inulin with DP≥10 (IN10), or DP≥23 (IN23). After 14 days of feeding birds were sacrificed to collect digesta samples from caeca and colon. Caecal digesta was examined for pH, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and amines, activities of β-glucosidase and mucinase, and relative amount of selected bacterial populations, whereas in colonic digesta only pH, SCFA and amines were analysed. Regardless of DP, inulin level did not affect digesta pH, activity of bacterial enzymes and relative amounts of Clostridium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and E. coli populations. Dietary level of IN10 significantly affected propionic acid concentration, which was greater in caecal digesta of birds fed diet supplemented with 0.2% of IN10 compared to other groups and feeding diets supplemented with all levels of IN10 significantly reduced histamine concentration compared to the control. There were no effects of inulin on microbial activity indices in the colon. The present study indicates that, regardless of DP, inulin does not modify considerably microbial activity in the large intestine of chicks.
Paweł Konieczka, Jan Czerwiński, Justyna Jankowiak, Katarzyna Ząbek and Stefania Smulikowska
This study examines the impact of soybean meal (SBM) substitutes, including solvent-extracted 00 rapeseed meal (RSM), narrow-leaved lupin (LUPIN), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) (each used at a ratio of 250 g/kg−1 in the diet), as well as administered probiotic (L. casei, L. plantarum, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, S. cerevisiae), on gut microbiota activity, diversity and performance. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 4 × 2 factorial design, with the factors being protein source in the diets (SBM only, RSM, LUPIN or DDGS) given from 8 to 35 days of age, and with or without a probiotic preparation administered in drinking water during the entire rearing period. The performance declined in birds fed with SBM substitutes (P≤0.01). The RSM diet decreased concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) (P<0.01) in ileal and caecal digesta as well as decreased bacterial enzymes activity in the caeca. The LUPIN diet increased viscosity and decreased SCFAs concentration in ileum, while the DDGS diet increased butyrate concentration in caeca. SBM substitutes and probiotic were involved in changing the Clostridiales and Lactobacillales diversity in the ileal and caecal digesta. Probiotic administration did not affect performance, but it did alleviate some negative effects of SBM substitutes on microbiota activity and diversity.
Piotr Nowak, Małgorzata Kasprowicz-Potocka, Anita Zaworska, Włodzimierz Nowak, Barbara Stefańska, Anna Sip, Włodzimierz Grajek, Katarzyna Grajek and Andrzej Frankiewicz
The aim of the research was to determine the affectivity of 4 different eubiotic preparations on the growth performance of pigs, microbial status, the integrity of intestinal mucosa, and some blood parameters. The experiment was conducted for 28 days on 48 male piglets allocated to six dietary treatments. Group 1 was offered a diet without eubiotic; 2 – a diet with acids mixture; 3 – phytobiotic, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) and yeast; 4 – probiotic, MCFA, and yeast; 5 – phytobiotic, probiotic, acids mixture, and sodium butyrate; 6 – phytobiotic, probiotic, MCFA, and sodium butyrate. The average daily weight gains and feed intake were recorded. Blood samples, digesta samples, and ileal tissue samples were collected for studies. There was no significant difference in gain, feed intake, or FCR among the treatments as well as in the ileal and caecal pH value, microbial content, and total SCFA content in caecal digesta. Ammonia content in ileal digesta was significantly higher in comparison with other groups and in caecal digesta was significantly higher in group 6 in comparison with groups 1 and 2. Villi height was significantly higher (P<0.05) in groups 2, 3 and 6 compared to the control. Villi height to crypt depth ratio was significantly higher (P<0.05) in groups 5 and 2, but the most promising effects seem to be from combinations 3 and 4. In comparison with control: in groups 2, 3 and 5 higher ALT, glucose and triglyceride; in groups 3, 4 and 5 higher total protein and cholesterol; in group 4 higher albumin and in group 6 higher BUN, were found. Generally, used eubiotic preparations affected gut morphology and some blood parameters but did not affect microbiota, pig growth or feed utilization.
Ewa Hanczakowska, Barbara Niwińska, Eugeniusz R. Grela, Karol Węglarzy and Krzysztof Okoń
The effect of supplementing the standard piglet diet containing sodium butyrate with glutamine and/or glucose on the structure of the piglet digestive tract and the small intestine epithelium, acidity and volatile fatty acid content of its digesta was investigated. The free amino acids level, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration in the blood were also analysed. The experiment was performed on 156 piglets (15 litters) allocated to 5 experimental groups, 3 litters in each. Group I (C, negative control) received a basal mixture with no supplement. Group II (SB, positive control) was fed the same basal diet containing additionally 3 g of sodium butyrate per kg. Group III and IV, besides sodium butyrate, received additionally 10 g of glutamine (GT) or glucose (GC), respectively. The last group V received all these supplements, i.e. SB+GT+GC (3, 10, 10 g per kg, respectively). At 60 days of age, the piglets (6 animals from each group) were slaughtered and their intestines were measured and weighed. The piglets in group SB+GT+GC receiving all the supplements grew slightly faster than the others, and at the end of the experiment the differences in body weight were significant. The total intestinal mass of the piglets fed with glucose or all the supplements was significantly higher than that of the piglets receiving glutamine but there was no significant difference in the total length of intestines. There was also no significant difference in acidity of chyme along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Digesta in the jejunum of both control groups (C, SB) contained significantly more SCFA than the remaining groups. In the caecum their content in the negative control and the group fed with all supplements was significantly higher when compared to the butyrate and glucose group. In the duodenum villus height was similar in all the groups but in the jejunum it was significantly higher in the group receiving all supplements than in other groups. Free amino acids level was lowest in the piglets receiving glucose but there was no difference between the remaining groups. The lowest level of IGF-1 was found in the same group and this difference was significant when compared with remaining groups, except C. It is concluded that glutamine and glucose, when given together with sodium butyrate, improve the structure of piglet jejunum epithelium and average body weight gains. A supplement of glucose significantly lowers free amino acid content and IGF-1 level in piglet blood.
Małgorzata P. Majewska, Jan Rawa, Janusz J. Pająk, Jacek Skomiał, Zofia Długołęcka and Barbara Kowalik
Šileikien ė V., Mosenthin R., Kruszewska D., Krasicka B., Pierzynowski S.G. (2004). Effect of intraruminally and intraduodenally infused short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on pancreatic juice outflow in sheep. Vet. Zoot. (Lithuanian), 25: 90-93.
Wang X., Taniguchi K. (1998). Activity of pancreatic digestive enzyme in sheep given abomasal infusion of starch and casein. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jap.), 69: 870-874.
Wong W.W., Hachey D.L., Insull W., Opekun A.R., Klein P.D. (1993). Effect of dietary cholesterol on cholesterol synthesis in breast
Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Anna Arczewska-Włosek, Józefa Krawczyk, Witold Szczurek, Michał Puchała and Damian Józefiak
improved method of cholesterol determination in egg yolk by HPLC. J. Food Bioch., 23: 351-361.
Saafa H., Serrano M.P., Valencia D.G., Frikha M., Jiménez- Moreno E., Mate- os G.G. (2008). Productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens in the late phase of production as influenced by level and source of calcium in the diet. Poultry Sci., 87: 2043-2051.
Sengor E., Yardimci M., Cetingul S., Bayram I., Sahin H., Dogan I. (2007). Effects of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) supplementation on performance and egg characteristics of