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Role of Microbiome in Rheumatic Diseases

the circulation and migrate to the target organs or tissues and cause focal inflammation, which result in various rheumatic manifestations [ 4 , 5 ]. Third, the overgrown gut microbes can produce excess metabolites that can trigger rheumatic-related comorbidities [ 1 ]. For example, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, can increase adiposity via G- protein-coupled signaling pathways (GPR41, GPR43) [ 1 ]. Increasing adiposity or obesity is a well-established associating factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic

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