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Digestibility and nutrient retention of a wheat bran-containing diet containing two vegetable oil sources applied to laying hens with emphasis on prefeeding period

mucosa in the small intestine ( Jaroni et al., 1999 ). In the gut, dietary fiber is usually degraded to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate, propionate, and acetate. Through the supplementation with WB containing dietary fiber, the production of SCFAs can be improved. These SCFAs provide energy for the colonocytes, modulate the immune system, further possess some anti-inflammatory potential, strenghten the intestinal barrier, and modulate oxidative stress reactions ( Hamer et al., 2008 ; Nyangale et al., 2012 ). Unfortunately, higher levels of WB in the

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Sustainable pig and poultry nutrition by improvement of nutrient utilisation – A review
Nachhaltige Schweine- und Geflügelernährung durch Steigerung der Nährstoffnutzungseffizienz – Eine Übersicht

main source of fermentable material in the large intestine ( Bach Knudsen and Hansen, 1991 ; Kreuzer et al., 1991 ). The most important products of microbial fermentation are SCFA, H 2 O, various gases (CO 2 , H 2 , CH 4 ) and bacterial protein ( Montagne et al., 2003 ). Between 95% and 99% of total SCFA produced in the GIT are absorbed before reaching the rectum ( Van Engelhardt et al., 1989 ; Montagne et al., 2003 ). These SCFA still contain considerable amounts of energy providing up to 15-24% of maintenance requirements for pigs ( Montagne et al., 2003 ). SCFA

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