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. The purpose of the present study was to examine human articular chondrocyte viability and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production after exposure to various concentrations of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine for various times in vitro. We also sought to determine whether the cytotoxicity observed involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or nitric oxide. We hypothesized that chondrotoxicity was directly dependent on the concentration of local anesthetics, exposure time, and type of local anesthetic. Materials and methods Cell culture The human

Anaesth Soc J. 1978; 25:133-9. 7. Ogun CO, Kirgiz EN, Duman A, Okesli S, Akyurek C. Comparison of intrathaecal isobaric bupivacainemorphine and ropivacaine-morphine for caesarean delivery. Br J Anaesth. 2003; 90:659-64. 8. Choi DH, Ahn HJ, Kim MH. Bupivacaine-sparing effect of fentanyl in spinal anaesthesia for cesarean delivery. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2000; 25:240-5. 9. Paul FW, Alejandro RF. Ambulatory (outpatient) Anesthesia. In Miller RD, editor. Miller’s Anesthesia, 6th ed. Philadelphia:Churchill Livingstone, 2005. p. 2589-94. 10. Bandi E, Weeks S, Carli F. Spinal

-anesthesia recovery score revisited. J Clin Anesth. 1995; 7: 89-91. 15. Hong JY, Han SW, Kim WO, Cho JS, Kil HK. A comparison of high volume/low concentration and low volume/high concentration ropivacaine in caudal analgesia for pediatric orchiopexy. Anesth Analg. 2009; 109: 1073-8. 16. Takasaki M, Dohi S, Kawabata Y, Takahashi T. Dosage of lidocaine for caudal anesthesia in infants and children. Anesthesiology. 1977; 47: 527-9. 17. Schrock CR, Jones MB. The dose of caudal epidural analgesia and duration of postoperative analgesia. Paediatr Anaesth. 2003; 13: 403 -8. 18. Gunter JB

. Pain after craniotomy. A time for reappraisal? Br J Neurosurg. 1996; 10:295-9. 11. Biswas BK, Bithal PK. Preincision 0.25% bupivacaine scalp infiltration and postcraniotomy pain: A randomized double blind, placebo-controlled study. J Neurosurg. Anesthesiol. 2003; 15:234-9. 12. Law-Koune JD, Szekely B, Fermanian C, Peuch C, Liu N, Fischler M. Scalp infiltration with bupivacaine plus epinephrine or plain ropivacaine reduces postoperative pain after supratentorial craniotomy. J Neurosurg Anesthsiol. 2005; 17:139-43. 13. Grossman R, Ram Z, Presel A, Yusim Y, Zaslansky R