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Emanuele Isidori, Agita Abele, Josif Sandor, Ioan Ganea, Francesco Taddei and Claudia Maulini
Analyzing Body Values in the Context of Postmodern Youth Education. A Comparative Study Between Italy, Latvia and Romania
Nowadays, research on the body and the values it embodies is considered fundamental in the research field of sport studies. There is a correlation between the choice of values preferred by youth and changes taking place in contemporary society. The postmodern society is a society in which body values prevail over all other ones; the type of body values dominant in a capitalist society are mostly those which are connected to the hedonistic, esthetic and emotional dimension of the body itself.
Starting from this background, this study aims to draw the hierarchy of body values, focusing on sport sciences students at Italian, Latvian and Romanian universities, who will be future educators and professionals of body care and well-being in the European society, in order to understand their preferences and the possible cultural differences that can emerge from the three societies.
To carry out the research, a randomized sample of 300 subjects - female and male students (100 per country) - attending first-, second- and third-year sport sciences courses at the University of Rome "Foro Italico", the Latvian Academy of Sport Education in Riga, and Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca were selected.
The students' values hierarchy was obtained through a Likert-scale-based questionnaire adapted and translated into Italian, Latvian and Romanian. The aim of the questionnaire was to detect the level of agreeability or disagreeability shown by each student when presented with words regarding 10 main body values models: biological body; ecological body; instrumental body; dynamic/sporting body, emotional/social body; ethical body; esthetical body; religious body; intellectual body; pleasure body.
The data obtained were statistically processed and compared. The results showed that the hierarchy of body values in young students of sports sciences is broadly in line with those of postmodern society and education, and that there are differences in the perception of values among students due to cultural differences and the traditions of the societies in which they live. The research also highlighted the need to develop a more effective moral education, one that focuses on ethics, in the curricula of the three universities studied.
Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations. Numerous studies show that the food intake at breakfast, mostly made before leaving home, has an incidence on the physic wellbeing of adolescent throughout the day. The processes of acculturation are also inseparable from the eating habits, health and life, that maintain the migrant teenagers. Breakfast is analyzed as one of the habits more associated with diet quality; paradoxically, one of the findings of our study, many adolescents do not take a proper breakfast every day.
Objectives: The study analyzes the characteristics and the main cultural and gender differences in the implementation of breakfast: its maintenance or omission in young autochthonous and immigrants of Romanian origin in the southeast Spanish schools. Design. This is a cross-sectional study with a cluster sampling in two Primary schools and seven Secondary schools. The instrument applied was an adaptation of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. Sample. It has been formed by 1472 students between 11 and 18 years old; nationality: 1315 were Spanish and 157 were Romanians. Data analysis. Descriptive and differential analyses using the chi-square and U of Mann-Whitney statistics.
Results: In the study we identified 1.2% of Spaniards and 3.3% of Romanians who either skip breakfast or do not eat foods throughout the morning. The main breakfast foods of the Spanish students are dairy, bread and cereals, cookies, juice and olive oil; for the Romanian students the basic foods at breakfast are cereals, dairy products, juices, biscuits and jams. We have found significant differences between the two compared cultural groups. We also found significant differences between the food eaten by men of the two cultural groups (Spanish and Romanian) and by the food eaten by women (Spanish and Romanian) in the breakfast food.
Conclusions: The results show the need to further promote and implement educational programs that encourage students to make breakfast before leaving home. Also, it is necessary, they take care of the intake of the right foods to start the day and contemplate this habit from a transcultural and gender approach. Significant differences were identified in the breakfast practice food by both genders and cultural groups.
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