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Radiation processing for cultural heritage preservation – Romanian experience

). Inactivation of fungi from deteriorated paper materials by radiation. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. , 57 , 163–167. 42. Trandafir, L., Zorila, F., Alexandru, M., Ene, M., Constantin, M., Alistar, A., Cutrubinis, M., Iordache, O., & Stanculescu, I. (2014). Radioresistance of biodegradation fungi and its importance in establishing the decontamination dose. In Proceedings of 5. ICAMS International Conference on Advanced Materials and Systems, 23–25 October 2014 (pp. 561–566). Bucharest, Romania.

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Comparison of Mouth Level Exposure to ‘Tar’ and Nicotine in Smokers of Normal and Superslim King Size Cigarettes in Romania

Abstract

Filter analysis methodology can be used to estimate smokers’ mouth level exposure (MLE) to ‘tar’ and nicotine from spent cigarette filters. Variation in smoking behaviour and cigarette design are known to have an impact on the range of ‘tar’ and nicotine MLE. Most ‘King Size’ (KS) cigarettes have a circumference of about 25 mm and are 83-84 mm long, with filters 20-27 mm in length. Recently, a slimmer format, described as a ‘King Size Superslim’ (KSSS), with a circumference of 17 mm, has become popular in several countries. Although several studies have estimated the MLE to ‘tar’ and nicotine of smokers of KS cigarettes, there have been no studies of KSSS smokers reported to date. KSSS cigarettes from Romania were chosen for this study with a single product to represent each 1, 4 and 7 mg machine-smoked ISO ‘tar’ yields. Since these products have filters containing activated carbon, comparisons were made with a single product at each ISO ‘tar’ level of KS cigarettes with both activated carbon filters (King Size Carbon - KSC), to assess the effect of format on MLE, and cellulose acetate filters (King Size Non-carbon - KSNC) to assess the effect of filter carbon on MLE. A target population of 50 to 70 male and female smokers (subjects) aged 21 to 50 years of each product were recruited in Romania, with self-reported consumption of 15-25 cigarettes per day. The subjects gave written informed consent before commencing the study. Mean MLE to ‘tar’ and nicotine obtained by the smokers of all products were greater than ISO pack ‘tar’ and nicotine as reported in numerous studies. Regarding MLE to ‘tar’, there were no significant differences between the KSC, KSNC and KSSS smokers within each of the 1, 4 and 7 mg machine-smoked ISO ‘tar’ yield groups, but there were significant differences between the ISO pack ‘tar’ groups: 1 mg < 4 mg < 7 mg. Regarding MLE to nicotine, KSC and KSSS smokers obtained similar yields within an ISO pack ‘tar’ group. KSNC smokers obtained lower MLE nicotine yields than the KSC and KSSS smokers at both 4 mg and 7 mg ISO pack ‘tar’, corresponding to lower blend nicotine levels. No gender differences were observed.

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Influence of Type and Amount of Carbon in Cigarette Filters on Smokers’ Mouth Level Exposure to “Tar”, Nicotine, 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Isoprene, and Acrylonitrile

Romania; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2011) 277-288. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0908. 38. Counts, M.E., M.J. Morton, S.W. Laffoon, R.H. Cox, and P.J. Lipowicz: Smoke Composition and Predicting Relationships for International Commercial Cigarettes Smoked with Three Machine-Smoking Conditions; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 41 (2005) 185-227. DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2004.12.002.

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Validation of the method for determination of plutonium isotopes in urine samples and its application in a nuclear facility at Otwock

. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem ., 283 , 203–223. 5. Lecoix, G., & Chevalier, C. (2013). Actinides in urine. PROCORAD Radiotoxicological Intercomparison Exercises, 19–21 June 2013, Bucharest, Romania, Retrieved September 11, 2014 from https://procorad.mysps.net/SiteAssets/SitePages/en/News/Lecoix_actinides_urines.pdf 6. Alvarez, A., & Navarro, N. (1996). Method for actinides and Sr-90 determination in urine samples. Appl. Radiat. Isot ., 47 , 869–873. 7. Arginelli, D., Berton, G., Bortoluzzi, S., Canuto, G., Groppi, F., Montalto, M., Nocente, M., Ridone, S

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Multibarrier system preventing migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repository

Geologicznych Geotermia, Zrównoważony Rozwój nr 2/2014. Wyd. IGSMiE PAN. 11. IAEA. (2004). Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities Vol. 1 - Review and enhancement of safety assessment approaches and tools. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. 12. Crăciun, C. (1997). Mineralogical, physical and chemical research of clay deposits from Saligny area. Economical Contract no. 37.1/1997, Romanian Academy for Science in Agriculture and Forestry ‘Gheorghe Ionescu-Siseşti’. Bucharest Institute for Research in Pedology

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Factors Influencing the Formation of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in French Air-Cured Tobaccos in Trials and at the Farm Level

, October 10–14, 1999. 11. de Roton, C., I. Wahlberg, and A. Wiernik: Burley variety, curing environment, nornicotine conversion and TSNA accumulation; Joint Meeting of the CORESTA Agronomy and Phytopathology Study Groups; Bucharest, Romania, October 12–17, 2003. 12. Rundlöf, T., E. Olsson, A. Wiernik, S. Back, M. Aune, L. Johansson, and I. Wahlberg: Potential nitrite scavengers as inhibitors of the formation of N -nitrosamines in solution and tobacco matrix systems; J. Agric. Food Chem. 48 (2000) 4381

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A Comparison between Integer and Fractional Order PD μ Controllers for Vibration Suppression

manuscript. The obtained controllers were tested on an experimental vibration stand built at the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The impulse responses of the closed-loop of the system were compared in terms of settling time and robustness. The article is structured as follows: in the second section the tuning equations are detailed, in the third section the practical stand and the experimental results are presented, while the fourth section consists of conclusions. 2 Fractional and integer order controller tuning In the study, two PD controllers

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Equivalent Analytical Functions of Sums of Sigmoid like Transcendental Functions

Engineering (ATEE), 9 th International Symposium, (2015) Location: Bucharest, Romania INSPEC Accession Number: 15240830. Petrescu L. Cazacu E. Petrescu K Sigmoid functions used in hysteresis phenomenon modeling. IEEE Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering (ATEE), 9 th International Symposium 2015 Location: Bucharest, Romania INSPEC Accession Number: 15240830 [10] Perez-Lojas C. Fitting saturation and hysteresis via arctangent function. IEEE Power Engineering Review, Vol. 20. No. 11 (2000) pp. 55-57. Perez-Lojas C. Fitting saturation and

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A Device to Measure a Smoker’s Puffing Topography and Real-Time Puff-By-Puff “Tar” Delivery

65. 11. Ashley, M., A. Sisodiya, M. McEwan, J. McAughey, and K. Prasad: Comparison of Mouth Level Exposure to “Tar” and Nicotine in Smokers of Normal and Superslim King Size Cigarettes in Romania; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2011) 277-288. 12. Shepperd, C.J., A.C. Eldridge, D.C. Mariner, M. McEwan, G. Errington, and M. Dixon: A Study to Estimate and Correlate Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Smokers in Germany as Determined by Filter Analysis and Biomarkers of Exposure; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 55 (2009) 97-109. 13

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Validation of Part-Filter Analysis to Estimate Smokers' Mouth Level Exposure to ‘Tar’ and Nicotine

. 18. St Charles, F.K., A.A. Kabbani, and M.F. Borgerding: Estimating ‘Tar’ and Nicotine Exposure: Human Smoking Versus Machine Smoking; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 56 (2010) 100-110. 19. Ashley, M., A. Sisodiya, M. McEwan, J. McAughey, and K. Prasad: Comparison of Mouth Level Exposure to ‘Tar’ and Nicotine in Smokers of Normal and Superslim King Size Cigarettes in Romania; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2011) 277-288. 20. Ashley, M., P. Saunders, G. Mullard, K. Prasad, D. Mariner, J. Williamson, and A. Richter: Smoking Intensity Before

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