The article employs concepts of time lag, inspired by Ernst Bloch, and ghost and haunting, borrowed from Jacques Derrida. It also draws on Svetlana Boym’s and Vilém Flusser’s vision of the émigré and on Dominick LaCapra’s and Slavoj Žižek’s interpretations of trauma. The analysis is also informed by Karen Jürs-Munby’s and Cathy Caruth’s views on trauma and its representation in theatre.
This critical apparatus is put into motion in the particular context of BANDIT: a theatre project developed in the UK by two Romanian émigré theatre-makers. The main focus is on exposing links between the references to trauma contained in the theatre piece BANDIT and the makers’ self-imposed artistic exile in the UK. The article seeks to answer the following question: what has pushed us, the makers of BANDIT, to leave our native country and what is our (new) role (as artists) in the country of emigration? The discussion is carried out within the wider context of the vast waves of Romanian emigration to Western Europe (after the fall of the Iron Curtain). The article critiques the troublesome relation of the contemporary Romanian society to its Communist past and the apparent inability and/or unwillingness to deal with the repressed/traumatic memories of that past. Analysis of BANDIT as performance of lingering trauma also references the historical Percentages agreement between Stalin and Churchill—the informal agreement that established spheres of influence in Europe at the end of the Second World War. Identifying the Iron Curtain as the epicentre of traumatic memory for Eastern Europeans, the discussion about BANDIT also makes a reference to Communist crimes against political prisoners committed in Romanian prisons in 1951–1952, put in parallel with the toxic EU referendum campaign in the UK in 2016. Underpinned by Derrida’s thinking, the article explains how the Romanian émigré-artist (as a paragon of the Romanian / Eastern European émigré in general) has to fashion herself into a ghost that haunts the adoptive culture, using artistic exile as a platform for processing the traumatic memories of an unresolved past.
, Editura Artes, Iaşi
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In Romania at the beginning of the twentieth century women were concerned with the home environment. In an urban environment, however, there had been a re-alignment towards education, women from affluent families having an artistic preoccupation, with them being determined and epochal. Though loved and admired on the stage, the women who embraced an artistic career were not looked upon with total respect by the society as a whole, because they were straying away from ‘their calling’. The opening towards the occident had lit the flame in our womens hearts to reach equality in rights, to occupy a place in society and to fight a prejudice image.
The Cherubic Hymn (gr.) o heroubikos ymnos) was introduced in the Byzantine Liturgy in the 5th century, by a decree of Emperor Justin the 2nd, issued in 574. The document stated the replacement of an old psalm, once sang during the offering of bread and wine gifts at the altar by the church-goers (ofertorium), with the new hymn. The replacement of the ofertoriumului ritual with the one of Presentation of the Euharistic Gifts (the Great Exodus) and the introduction of associated memorials, determined the fragmentation of the hymn in two different parts. Initially sang monodically, the introduction of the art of chorale in the Orthodox Church determined the development of this liturgical singing in two parts with a different musical nature, based on the principle of contrast: Cherubic, in large tempo (Adagio) and That we may receive the King in moderate tempo (Moderato). The first induces an atmosphere of mystical chastity, leads to introversion, and the second is a glory hymn, imposing and majestic. Literary, The Cherubic consists of the following three sentences, which determined the subsequent form of homonym choral creations,
We, who mystically represent the Cherubim,/
And chant the thrice-holy hymn to the Life-giving Trinity.
Let us set aside the cares of life,
Followed by another two sentences and the threefold repetition of the ovation “Hallelujah!”, which form the second hymn:
That we may receive the King of all!
Who comes invisibly escorted by the Divine Hosts!
Hallelujah, Hallelujah, Hallelujah!
In the Romanian liturgical chorale creation the Cherubic hymn bears the following stylistic directions: 1. of Slavic influence; 2. of Classical-Romantic inspiration; 3. which capitalizes the Byzantine church singing.
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1. Ciută, M. (1997-1998). Aspecte ale complexului cultural Starcevo-Criș pe teritoriul României. Sargetia , XXVII/1, 20, Deva
2. Ciută, M. (2000). Contribuții la cunoașterea celui mai vechi orizont al neoliticului timpuriu din România: cultura Precriș. Descoperirile arheologice de la
The paper will refer only to one of period of Hallstatt, Middle Hallstatt, an important period of the first Iron Age – that form with Late Hallstatt a unity called by historian the protohistory of the Dacians – bringing important transformations recorded in the human beings’ habitat. The settlements and buildings of the entire Bronze Age reflect the continuation of migrations, though limited, by their sedentarization, but also the fortification of some settlements which became real centres of unions of tribes. The characteristic to the mentioned period is continuity (and then the ending) of the process of unification of the Thracian tribes, a process began in Early Hallstatt. The collision of tribes needed the amplification of settlements, but also of the fortifications and also, step by step, the extending of the Greek urbanism implemented in today’s Dobrogea by the Greeks who started colonies here, the Scythian-Greek incluences are to be found in the Late Hallstatt and in other areas on the nowadays territory of our country. The specificity of settlements and buildings of the cultures from the beginning of Hallstatt on the territory of our country will be studied in their evolution towards the next phase – of the second period of the Iron Age: Latène.