The Influence of Selected Factors on the Removal of Anionic Contaminants from Water by Means of Ion Exchange MIEX®DOC Process
The study of the effectiveness of the removal of anionic natural organic matter (fulvic acids-FA and humic acids-HA) and inorganic anions (F-, Br-, NO3-) in MIEX®DOC process was performed. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of feed water on the process performance was investigated. The ion exchange process was carried out using strongly basic, macroporous polystyrene resin MIEX® by Orica Watercare. The synthetic feed waters differ in composition, i.e. concentration of FA and HA (ca. 6 and 12 mg/L), anions content (F-, Br-, NO3-) and of various alkalinity (ca. 20 and 120 mg/L as CaCO3) were used. The study confirmed the possibility of application of MIEX®DOC process for removal of anionic contaminants from water. It also showed the significant impact of feed water parameters on the process effectiveness. Moreover, the strong dependence of anions (F-, Br-, NO3-) removal, FA and HA concentration on the resin dose was revealed.
Aleksandra Ziembińska-Buczyńska, Jarosław Wiszniowski and Sławomir Ciesielski
Nitritation, the first stage of ammonia removal process is known to be limiting for total process performance. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) which perform this process are obligatory activated sludge habitants, a mixture consisting of Bacteria, Protozoa and Metazoa used for biological wastewater treatment. Due to this fact they are an interesting bacterial group, from both the technological and ecological point of view. AOB changeability and biodiversity analyses both in wastewater treatment plants and lab-scale reactors are performed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences using PCR-DGGE (Polymerase Chain Reaction – Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) as a molecular biology tool. AOB researches are usually led with nested PCR. Because the application of nested PCR is laborious and time consuming, we have attempted to check the possibility of using only first PCR round to obtain DGGE fingerprinting of microbial communities. In this work we are comparing the nested and non-nested PCR-DGGE monitoring of an AOB community and presenting advantages and disadvantages of both methods used. The experiment revealed that PCR technique is a very sensitive tool for the amplification of even a minute amount of DNA sample. But in the case of nested-PCR, the sensitivity is higher and the template amount could be even smaller. The nested PCR-DGGE seems to be a better tool for AOB community monitoring and complexity research in activated sludge, despite shorter fragments of DNA amplification which seems to be a disadvantage in the case of bacteria identification. It is recommended that the sort of analysis approach should be chosen according to the aim of the study: nested-PCR-DGGE for community complexity analysis, while PCR-DGGE for identification of the dominant bacteria.
Stanisław M. Rybicki and Małgorzata Cimochowicz-Rybicka
The paper describes practical results of four-year laboratory studies completed to estimate technically feasible conditions of upgrading an existing sludge disposal system. A minimization of sludge mass and volume together with an energy recovery improvement were main goals of these activities. The way from lab studies and simulations to full scale investments has been shown with a special emphasis on application of respirometric procedure being applied by authors. Proposed was authors’ procedure for an estimation of a digestion time prediction for sludge of specific composition. Investigations completed at existing wastewater treatment plant resulted in practical implementation to be used during the design of upgrading and extension of the digestion and energy recovery system at the plant. It was proved that proposed changes provide close to optimum conditions for process performance and the application of proposed calculation procedures was adopted by design team
Agnieszka Ryznar-Luty, Edmund Cibis, Małgorzata Krzywonos and Tadeusz Miśkiewicz
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Bożenna Pisarska, Wojciech Mikołajczak, Hanna Jaroszek, Mariusz Nowak, Rafał Dylewski and Barbara Cichy
In a batch electro-electrodialysis (EED), sodium sulphate solution with an initial concentration of 80.90 g/dm3 was converted to obtain solutions of sodium hydroxide (13.96%) and sulphuric acid (10.15%) and a dialysate (3.23 g/dm3 of sulphate ions). Changes in the EED process′ performance (temperature, cell voltage, concentrations, energy consumption) with an increasing conversion degree of salt are presented. Based on the presented results of the batch experiment, conditions necessary to run the process continuously are discussed. A single pass method is inapplicable due to excessive heating of the electro-electrodialyser. A cascade method enables interstage cooling of the solutions, providing temperatures suitable for ion-exchange membranes to work. Increasing the number of stages in the cascade reduces both the number of electro-electrodialysers and specific electric energy consumption, providing the same production capacity. However, this increases the investment cost.
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Queiroz, M., Tallon, P.P., Sharma, R