Diogo Telles-Correia, Sérgio Saraiva and João Gama Marques
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Disability has become an increasingly important field of investment for modern welfare policy-visible in architecture for wheelchair users as well as in budgets for health care. This documents a gain in solidarity, but it implies also some challenges of practical and philosophical character. Play and games (of, for, and with disabled people) make these challenges bodily. These challenges will here be explored in three steps.
In the first step, we discover the paradoxes of equality and categorization, normalization and deviance in the understanding of disability. Ableism, a negative view on disability, is just around the corner. The Paralympic sports for disabled people make this visible. However, play with disabled people shows alternative ways. And it calls to our attention how little we know, so far, about how disabled people play.
The second step leads to an existential phenomenology of disablement. Sport and play make visible to what degree the building of “handicap” is a cultural achievement. All human beings are born disabled and finally die disabled-and inbetween they create hindrances to make life dis-eased. Dis-ease is a human condition.
However, and this is an important third step, disablement and dis-eased life are not just one, but highly differentiated. These differences are relevant for political practice and have to be recognized. Attention to differences opens up a differential phenomenology of disablement and of disabled people in play-as a basis for politics of recognition.
Introduction. The article is devoted to the phenomenology of burnout symptoms among teachers and determining their individual characteristics.
Aim. The aim was to study the phenomenology of the burnout process among teachers and to define its individual determinants.
Material and methods. The theoretical basis for the study was a burnout model described by V.V. Boyko considering the burnout as a mechanism of psychological protection of personality in response to the traumatic circumstances of the environment. The following diagnostic tools were used: the Boyko’s Emotional Burnout Inventory, the Inventory on behavior and experience in the working environment by W. Schaarschmidt and A. Fischer and the individual-typological questionnaire by L.Sobchik. In order to calculate and evaluate the results, methods of mathematical statistics were applied.
Results. The results of polling 132 teachers show that more than one third of working teachers show prominent features of high level burnout. This is combined with a number of personality traits and features of behavior, and with an emotional response of the teacher to the circumstances of the working environment, what suggests the need for the development and systematic implementation of prevention programs and correction of burnout among working teachers.
Conclusions. A significant part of the surveyed teachers show signs of burnout expressed at a significant level. Thus, the problem of psychological assistance and psychological support for working teachers remains relevant and requires the search for effective technologies and techniques for providing psychological assistance.
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2 Nelson B, Whitford TJ, Lavoie S, Sass LA: What are the neurocognitive correlates of basic self-disturbance in schizophrenia?: Integrating phenomenology and neurocognition. Part 1 (source monitoring deficits). Schizophr Res 2014;152:12-19.
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