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The aim of this paper is to investigate the implications of the fourth industrial revolution for technological competitiveness, its definition and measurement methods. An empirical part is aimed at identifying comparative advantages of the European Union in digital technologies. Recently new approaches have appeared to measure digital competitiveness, however they use a broad definition of competitiveness that encompasses not only technological factors but also the macroeconomic and institutional environment (IMD, 2017; WEF, 2018). There is still a limited number of studies focused on the technological dimension of competitiveness in digital technologies. This paper fills the gap by developing a conceptual framework based on patent indicators, i.e. Patent Share and Revealed Technological Advantage indices. It allows a consistent analysis of the comparative advantages of the EU member states in digital technologies to be conducted. The results confirm a huge diversity within the EU in terms of digital technologies, their global impact and comparative advantages.


Our bibliographic insights have shown that although thermographic imaging in small animals has been poorly studied, the empirical use of thermographic images in dogs suggests that thermographic imaging could be a useful method in assessing walking anomalies. The study aims to identify existing thermal asymmetries between the thermal paw prints of the hind limbs in healthy dogs (right versus left). For thermal investigations, the Flir E50 thermal camera with a resolution of 240×180, thermal sensitivity of 0.05ºC, 45º×34ºA visual field and unbalanced microbolometer was used. Acclimatization of the animals in the space for examination was 30 minutes (at a room temperature of 20-23°C). The resulting images were recorded, processed and analyzed with the Flir tools 2017 software. The average, maximum and minimum temperature of each image was calculated using the program. The results obtained show that between the thermal paws marks of the posterior limbs in healthy dogs there is an average thermal asymmetry comprised between 0.2 and 1.4°C. Our study suggested that, under controlled conditions, thermographic paws prints could be used to diagnose locomotor abnormalities in dogs..