Marija Petrushevska, Kristina Pavlovska, Jovanka Laskova, Pance Zdravkovski and Marija Glavas Dodov
Nanotechnology presents a modern field of science that in the last twenty-five years plays a dominant role in the biomedicine. Different analytical methods are used for evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles including chromatography, electrophoresis, X-ray scattering, spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, zeta potential measurement and microscopy on which this article will focus.
Herein, we present novel application of the long-established TEM technique that is focused on characterization and evaluation of various nanoparticles in development of drug delivery systems.
Transmission electron microscopy images were taken of samples from native nanoparticles, nanoparticles labeled using stannous chloride labeling procedure, inorganic silica nanoparticles loaded with budesonide and native micelles and micelles carrier of anticancer drug camptothecin. In the case of radiolabeled nanoparticles, beside for nanoparticle characterization, TEM technique was used to confirm the stability of the nanoparticles after radiolabeling. Furthermore, the porous structure of hybrid silica particles loaded with budesonide was examined under TEM.
Transmission electron microscopy technique offers exceptional benefits for nanoparticle characterization. Additionally, the necessity of ultrastructural analysis demonstrates the potential of TEM in the field of nanomedicine. Hence, the long-established and well-known TEM has been only partially exploited and offer researchers very detailed images of specimens at microscopic and nano scale.
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Aleksandra Janchevska, Zoran Gucev, Velibor Tasic and Momir Polenakovic
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Jasmina Pluncevic-Gligoroska, Lidija Todorovska, Beti Dejanova, Vesela Maleska, Sanja Mancevska and Slobodan Nikolic
Objectives: The focus of this study is on anthropometric characteristics of footballers in the Republic of Macedonia, and the aim is to provide normative data for selected anthropometric parameters for adult male footballers in our country.
Material and method: The study included eight hundred (800) adult male footballers, aged 24.06 ± 4.8y (age range 18–35y), who have undertaken routine sport medical examinations over a ten-year period. The football players were divided into six age – specific subgroups (“up to 20”; “up to 22”; “up to 24”; “up to 26”; “up to 28” and “over 28” years). Anthropometric measurements were made by Matiegka's protocols and body composition components were determined.
Results: Average values of body height (178.8 ± 6.7 cm), body weight (77.72 ± 7.9 kg), lean body mass (66.21 ± 6.36 kg), body components (MM% = 53.04; BM% = 17.15; FM% = 14.7%) and a large series of anthropometric measurements which define the footballers' anthropometric dimensions were obtained. The distribution of the adipose tissue regarding the body and limbs showed that the skinfolds were thickest on the lower limbs and thinnest on the arms.
Conclusions: The adult football players in Republic of Macedonia were insignificantly variable in height and body mass from their counter parts from European and American teams. The football players up to 20 year, who played in the senior national football league were lighter and smaller than their older colleagues. The football players aged from 20 to 35 years were insignificantly variable in height, body mass, and anthropometric dimensions of limbs and trunk.
A quality-made dental impression is a prerequisite for successful fixed-prosthodontic fabrication and is directly dependent on the dimensional stability, accuracy and flexibility of the elastomeric impression materials, as well as on the appropriately used impression techniques. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of relevant scientific papers which discuss the use of various silicone impression materials, different impression techniques and to evaluate their impact on the dimensional stability and accuracy of the obtained impressions. Scientific papers and studies were selected according to the materials used, the sample size, impression technique, storage time, type of measurements and use of spacer for the period between 2002 and 2016. In the reviewed literature several factors that influence the dimensional stability and accuracy of silicone impression molds, including the choice of the type of viscosity, impression material thickness, impression technique, retention of the impression material on the tray, storage time before the casting, number of castings, hydrophilicity of the material, release of byproducts, contraction after polymerization, thermal contraction and incomplete elastic recovery were presented. The literature review confirmed the lack of standardization of methodologies applied in the research and their great diversity. All findings point to the superiority of the addition silicone compared to the condensation silicone.
Suzy Y Honisett, Kathy Tangalakis, John Wark, Vasso Apostolopoulos and Lily Stojanovska
Introduction: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and walking were investigated independently and in combination, to determine which treatment provided most effect on bone turnover in postmenopausal women.
Methods: Using a randomised double-blind pilot study, 10 subjects received HRT (transdermal estradiol, 50 μg/day and oral MPA 5 mg/day) and 12 received placebo for 20 weeks. Following a baseline period of treatment, both groups undertook a graduated walking regimen, which increased in intensity, duration and frequency parameters from weeks 8–20. Measurements of aerobic capacity, female sex hormones, bone formation markers [osteocalcin (OC) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)] and bone resorption markers [deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and pyridinoline (PYR)] were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2) and week 20 (T3).
Results: Age, time of postmenopause, weight or body mass index were no different between each groups. The HRT group had significantly higher estradiol levels compared with the placebo group at T2 and T3. FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced following HRT. DPD and PYR were significantly reduced from baseline levels at T2 and T3 with HRT. No significant changes occurred in OC or BAP levels with either HRT or walking. Walking did not change bone turnover markers in either the HRT or placebo group.
Conclusion: HRT reduces bone resorption, however, walking alone at the intensity and duration prescribed, or the combination of HRT and walking, provided no additional benefit after menopause. Therefore, HRT, but not walking is an effective treatment in reducing bone turnover in postmenopause women.
Elida Mitevska, Irena Kostadinova-Petrova and Nevena Kostovska
The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the immunosuppressive effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) determining the volume densities of the structural components of the spleen. The volume densities of the same structural components of spleen were determined after administration of dexamethasone too, in order to see whether the morphological changes induced by MPA are in the same line with the changes caused by dexamethasone.
60 female Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups. The control group of rats was administered physiological solution. The remaining, 4 experimental groups were administered: dexamethasone at a therapeutic daily dose of 0.6 mg/kg bw and maximal therapeutic dose of 3 mg/kg bw, and MPA at a therapeutic dose of 30 mg/kg bw and maximal therapeutic dose of 150 mg/kg bw. The drugs were applied intramuscularly for 7 days. Spleen paraffin sections were stained according to the methods: hematoxylin-eosin, Masson and Elastica van-Gieson. Stereological measurements were performed by using the Weibl′s multipurpose test system (M-42).
The histological analyses of the structural components of the spleen in rats treated with dexamethasone and MPA have shown reduction of the white pulp and the marginal zone and an apparent decrease of the cellular density of the lymphocyte component of the pulp. The stereological analysis of the spleen showed significant decrease of the splenic pulp volume density and significant increase of the connective tissue volume density. Reducing the presence of splenic pulp was mainly due to the decrease in the volume density of all structural components of the white pulp. Changes were observed in all drug treated groups of rats.
Our results have shown that the MPA provoked changes suggested atrophy of the spleen lymphoid tissue. Although the atrophic changes of the spleen were significant after the application of both dexamethasone and MPA, the white pulp was significantly more sensitive substrate for dexamethasone than for the MPA.