Search Results

1 - 10 of 25 items :

  • "Measurement" x
  • Education, other x
  • Basic Medical Science x
Clear All
Transmission Electron Microscopy: Novel Application of Established Technique in Characterization of Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Systems

Abstract

Nanotechnology presents a modern field of science that in the last twenty-five years plays a dominant role in the biomedicine. Different analytical methods are used for evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles including chromatography, electrophoresis, X-ray scattering, spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, zeta potential measurement and microscopy on which this article will focus.

Herein, we present novel application of the long-established TEM technique that is focused on characterization and evaluation of various nanoparticles in development of drug delivery systems.

Transmission electron microscopy images were taken of samples from native nanoparticles, nanoparticles labeled using stannous chloride labeling procedure, inorganic silica nanoparticles loaded with budesonide and native micelles and micelles carrier of anticancer drug camptothecin. In the case of radiolabeled nanoparticles, beside for nanoparticle characterization, TEM technique was used to confirm the stability of the nanoparticles after radiolabeling. Furthermore, the porous structure of hybrid silica particles loaded with budesonide was examined under TEM.

Transmission electron microscopy technique offers exceptional benefits for nanoparticle characterization. Additionally, the necessity of ultrastructural analysis demonstrates the potential of TEM in the field of nanomedicine. Hence, the long-established and well-known TEM has been only partially exploited and offer researchers very detailed images of specimens at microscopic and nano scale.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Comparison of Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Echocardiography in Determination of Left Ventricle Volumes and Ejection Fraction in Adult Population

standard. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:1897-907. 15. Ruddox V, Edvardsen T, Bækkevar M, Otterstad E J. Measurements of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with three-dimensional echocardiography: feasibility and agreement compared to two-dimensional echocardiography Int J Cardiovasc Imaging (2014) 30:1325–1330 16. Luigi P. Badano, “The Clinical Benefits of Adding a Third Dimension to Assess the Left Ventricle with Echocardiography,” Scientifica, vol. 2014, Article ID 897431, 18 pages, 2014. 17. Mor-Avi V, Jenkins C, Kühl HP, Nesser HJ, Marwick T

Open access
in PRILOZI
Nutritional Assessment of Dialysis Patient with a Web-Based Tool Allows More Accurate Treatment of Malnutrition

–80. 14. Rumpler WV, Kramer M, Rhodes DG, et al. Identifying sources of reporting error using measured food intake. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008; 62: 544–55. 15. Trabulsi J, Schoeller DA. Evaluation of dietary assessment instruments against doubly labeled water, a biomarker of habitual energy intake. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and metabolism. 2001; 281(5): E891–9. 16. Wrieden WL, Anderson AS. Measurement of food and alcohol intake in relation to chronic liver disease. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 2009; 18: 285–301.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Body Mass Index, Underweight and Overweight in Children 3 to 5 Years of Age from Skopje/ Индекс На Телесната Тежина, Неисхранетост И Прекумерна Исхранетост Кај Деца На 3–5 Години Од Скопје

. 1998, 18: 1825-1835. 9. Barlow S and Dietz W. Obesity evaluation and treatment; expert committee recommendations: Pediatrics. 1998, 102: 29-36. 10. Poskitt E. Defining childhood obesity: the relative body mass index (BMI). Act Pediatric. 1995, 84: 961-963. 11. Power C, Lake J and Cole T. Measurement and longterm health risks of child and adolescent fatness. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997; 21: 1623-1627. 12. Morris A. M, Williams J. M, et al. Anthropometric measurements of 3-6 years old girls and

Open access
in PRILOZI
Assessment of Malnutrition Inflammation Score in Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

, Wesson DE, Wolman SL, Stewart S, Whitewell J, et al. Nutritional assessment: a comparison of clinical judgement and objective measurements. N Engl J Med 1982; 306: 969–72. 8. Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kopple JD, Block G. A malnutrition inflammation score is correlated with morbidity and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38: 1251–63. 9. Tonelli M, Sacks F, Pfeffer M, Jhangri GS, Curhan G: Biomarkers of inflammation and progression of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2005; 68: 237–45. 10. Kopple JD: Nutritional status as a

Open access
in PRILOZI
Homeostasis Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance and Sensitivity (HOMA-IR and IS) Index in Overweight Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA)

, Tuvemo T. Growth and growth hormone in children born small for gestational age. Acta Pediatr 2005; 94: 1348-1355. 5. Saenger P, Czernichow P, Hughes I et al. Small for gestational age: short stature and beyond. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 28 (2): 219-251. 6. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants. 2016; 387: 1377–1396. 7. World Health Organization. Obesity and over-weight. 2015. 8

Open access
in PRILOZI
Anthropometric Parameters in National Footballers in the Republic of Macedonia

Abstract

Objectives: The focus of this study is on anthropometric characteristics of footballers in the Republic of Macedonia, and the aim is to provide normative data for selected anthropometric parameters for adult male footballers in our country.

Material and method: The study included eight hundred (800) adult male footballers, aged 24.06 ± 4.8y (age range 18–35y), who have undertaken routine sport medical examinations over a ten-year period. The football players were divided into six age – specific subgroups (“up to 20”; “up to 22”; “up to 24”; “up to 26”; “up to 28” and “over 28” years). Anthropometric measurements were made by Matiegka's protocols and body composition components were determined.

Results: Average values of body height (178.8 ± 6.7 cm), body weight (77.72 ± 7.9 kg), lean body mass (66.21 ± 6.36 kg), body components (MM% = 53.04; BM% = 17.15; FM% = 14.7%) and a large series of anthropometric measurements which define the footballers' anthropometric dimensions were obtained. The distribution of the adipose tissue regarding the body and limbs showed that the skinfolds were thickest on the lower limbs and thinnest on the arms.

Conclusions: The adult football players in Republic of Macedonia were insignificantly variable in height and body mass from their counter parts from European and American teams. The football players up to 20 year, who played in the senior national football league were lighter and smaller than their older colleagues. The football players aged from 20 to 35 years were insignificantly variable in height, body mass, and anthropometric dimensions of limbs and trunk.

Open access
in PRILOZI
The Effects of Hormonal Therapy and Exercise on Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomised Double-Blind Pilot Study

Abstract

Introduction: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and walking were investigated independently and in combination, to determine which treatment provided most effect on bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

Methods: Using a randomised double-blind pilot study, 10 subjects received HRT (transdermal estradiol, 50 μg/day and oral MPA 5 mg/day) and 12 received placebo for 20 weeks. Following a baseline period of treatment, both groups undertook a graduated walking regimen, which increased in intensity, duration and frequency parameters from weeks 8–20. Measurements of aerobic capacity, female sex hormones, bone formation markers [osteocalcin (OC) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)] and bone resorption markers [deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and pyridinoline (PYR)] were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2) and week 20 (T3).

Results: Age, time of postmenopause, weight or body mass index were no different between each groups. The HRT group had significantly higher estradiol levels compared with the placebo group at T2 and T3. FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced following HRT. DPD and PYR were significantly reduced from baseline levels at T2 and T3 with HRT. No significant changes occurred in OC or BAP levels with either HRT or walking. Walking did not change bone turnover markers in either the HRT or placebo group.

Conclusion: HRT reduces bone resorption, however, walking alone at the intensity and duration prescribed, or the combination of HRT and walking, provided no additional benefit after menopause. Therefore, HRT, but not walking is an effective treatment in reducing bone turnover in postmenopause women.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Dimensional Stability and Accuracy of Silicone – Based Impression Materials Using Different Impression Techniques – A Literature Review

Abstract

A quality-made dental impression is a prerequisite for successful fixed-prosthodontic fabrication and is directly dependent on the dimensional stability, accuracy and flexibility of the elastomeric impression materials, as well as on the appropriately used impression techniques. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of relevant scientific papers which discuss the use of various silicone impression materials, different impression techniques and to evaluate their impact on the dimensional stability and accuracy of the obtained impressions. Scientific papers and studies were selected according to the materials used, the sample size, impression technique, storage time, type of measurements and use of spacer for the period between 2002 and 2016. In the reviewed literature several factors that influence the dimensional stability and accuracy of silicone impression molds, including the choice of the type of viscosity, impression material thickness, impression technique, retention of the impression material on the tray, storage time before the casting, number of castings, hydrophilicity of the material, release of byproducts, contraction after polymerization, thermal contraction and incomplete elastic recovery were presented. The literature review confirmed the lack of standardization of methodologies applied in the research and their great diversity. All findings point to the superiority of the addition silicone compared to the condensation silicone.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Changes of Spleen in Wistar Rats Exposed to Therapeutic Doses of Dexamethasone and Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Evaluated by Stereological Parameters

Abstract

The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the immunosuppressive effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) determining the volume densities of the structural components of the spleen. The volume densities of the same structural components of spleen were determined after administration of dexamethasone too, in order to see whether the morphological changes induced by MPA are in the same line with the changes caused by dexamethasone.

60 female Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups. The control group of rats was administered physiological solution. The remaining, 4 experimental groups were administered: dexamethasone at a therapeutic daily dose of 0.6 mg/kg bw and maximal therapeutic dose of 3 mg/kg bw, and MPA at a therapeutic dose of 30 mg/kg bw and maximal therapeutic dose of 150 mg/kg bw. The drugs were applied intramuscularly for 7 days. Spleen paraffin sections were stained according to the methods: hematoxylin-eosin, Masson and Elastica van-Gieson. Stereological measurements were performed by using the Weibl′s multipurpose test system (M-42).

The histological analyses of the structural components of the spleen in rats treated with dexamethasone and MPA have shown reduction of the white pulp and the marginal zone and an apparent decrease of the cellular density of the lymphocyte component of the pulp. The stereological analysis of the spleen showed significant decrease of the splenic pulp volume density and significant increase of the connective tissue volume density. Reducing the presence of splenic pulp was mainly due to the decrease in the volume density of all structural components of the white pulp. Changes were observed in all drug treated groups of rats.

Our results have shown that the MPA provoked changes suggested atrophy of the spleen lymphoid tissue. Although the atrophic changes of the spleen were significant after the application of both dexamethasone and MPA, the white pulp was significantly more sensitive substrate for dexamethasone than for the MPA.

Open access
in PRILOZI