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Measurement of melamine migration from melamine-ware products by designed HPLC method and the effect of food-type on the level of migration

Abstract

Melamine-ware is widely used around the world. There is a public health concern as regards the safety of melamine when exposed to food. This study was carried out to measure the level of melamine migration in melamine-ware products by HPLC method and the effect of food-type on the level of melamine migration. In food control laboratories in Iran, there is no common method to measure and monitor melamine migration, hence a method using HPLC technique was adopted and validated to solve this problem. The validation results showed the reliability with 94.9% accuracy and 95.3% precision. Furthermore, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.145 and 0.435 µg/ml, which for a new method were within acceptable ranges. Melamine migrations from 4 most available melamine wares were measured. Distilled water, 3% acetic acid and 15% ethanol were used as food simulant at 30 °C for 90 min. Although melamine migration occurred in all samples and acidic conditions had a significant effect, the values were not higher than the European standard (30 µg/ml). The study revealed that the HPLC method was valid and could be applied and developed to measure melamine migration. However, precautions should be considered while choosing melamine-ware utensil as long-term exposure to this substance has a negative effect on health, especially on the kidneys.

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Novel pentacyclic triterpene isolated from seeds of Euryale Ferox Salisb. ameliorates diabetes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

. (2010). Insulin clamp-derived measurements of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in lean and obese Asian type 2 diabetic patients. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorder. 8 : 113–118. Szkudelski T. (2001). The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in β-cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol. Res. 50 : 536–546. Thannickal VJ, Fanburg BL. (2000). Reactive oxygen species in cell signalling. American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physio. 279 : L1005–L1028. Wang L, Zhang XT, Zhang HY, Yao HY, Zhang H. (2010

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In vitro cytogenotoxic evaluation of sertraline

Cell Longev 2017 : 3749157. Erel O. (2004). A novel automated direct measurement method for total anti-oxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation. Clin Biochem 37 : 277–85. Fenech M. (2007). Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Nature Protocols 2 : 1084–1104. Fenech M, Holland N, Zeiger E, Chang WP, Burgaz S, Thomas P, Bolognesi C, Knasmueller S, Kirsch-Volders M and Bonassi S. (2011). The HUMN and HUMNxL international collaboration projects on human micronucleus as-says in lymphocytes and buccal cells

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Insights on the relationship between structure vs. toxicological activity of antibacterial rhodamine-labelled 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone iron(III) chelators in HepG2 cells

lactate dehydrogenase release in measurements of cellular cytotoxicity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity. J Immunol Methods 115 : 61–69. Dias da Silva D, Carmo H, Silva E. (2013). The risky cocktail: what combination effects can we expect between ecstasy and other amphetamines? Arch Toxicol 87 : 111–122. Dykens JA, Jamieson JD, Marroquin LD, Nadanaciva S, Xu JJ, Dunn MC, Smith AR, Will Y. (2008). In vitro assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytotoxicity of nefazodone, trazodone, and buspirone. Toxicol Sci 103 : 335

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Effects of mustard oil cake on liver proteins of Channa punctatus (Bloch)

of Bioenergetics of Rainbow trout( Salmo gairdeneri ). J Fish Res Board Can 33 : 1335–1342. Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. (1951). Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193 : 265–257. Maitra S, Nath S. (2014). Toxic impact of urea on the Heteropnustus fossilis (Bloch). American-Eurasian J Agric & Environ sci 14 (4): 336–334. Malathi K, Kannathasan AK, Rejendran K. (2012).Comparetive haematological studies on Fresh water fishes Channa punctatus and Channa striatus (Bloch). Int J Pharm Chem Biol

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Sub-chronic oral toxicity assessment (90 days) of ethanolic fraction of leaves of Neurocalyx calycinus (R. Br. ex Benn.) Rob. in rodents: A lesser known ethnomedicinal plant from the Cholanaickan tribal community, India

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Mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibition and Na+K+ATPase dysfunction are determinant factors modulating the toxicity of nickel in the brain of indian catfish Clarias batrachus L.

concentration, ouabain-sensitive 86rubidium-uptake and sodium-efflux and Na + K + -cotransport activity in erythrocytes of normal male subjects studied on two occasions. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 8 : 525–533. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Far AL, Randall RJ. (1951). Protein measurement with Folin-Phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193 : 265–275. Luo J, Shi R. (2005). Acroline induced oxidative stress in brain mitochondria. Neurochem Int 46 : 243–252. Mallik BN, Adya HVA, Faisal M. (2000). Norepinephrine stimulated increase in Na + K + ATPase activity in

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In vivo analysis of Bisphenol A induced dose-dependent adverse effects in cauda epididymis of mice

implications. Physiol Rev 96 (1): 307–364. Levinsky H, Singer R, Barnet M, Sagiv M, Allalouf D. (1983). Sialic acid content of human spermatozoa and seminal plasma in relation to sperm counts. Arch Androl 10 (1): 45–46. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193 (1): 265–275. Luck H. (1963). A spectrophotometric method for the estimation of catalase. In Methods of Enzymatic Analysis , Bergmeyer HU (ed.), Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, pp. 886–887. Ohkawa H

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Impact of quercetin on tight junctional proteins and BDNF signaling molecules in hippocampus of PCBs-exposed rats

–96 Pick E, Keisari Y. (1980). A simple colorimetric method for the measurement of hydrogen peroxide produced by cells in culture. J Immunol Methods 38 (1–2): 161–70. Pratheepa Kumari R, Selvakumar K, Bavithra S, Zumaana R, Krishnamoorthy G, Arunakaran J. (2011). Role of quercetin on PCBs (Aroclor-1254) induced impairment of dopaminergic receptor mRNA expression in cerebral cortex of adult male rats. Neurochem Res 36 (8): 1344–52. Pu F, Mishima K, Irie K, Motohashi K, Tanaka Y, Orito K, Egawa T, Kitamura Y, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M. (2007

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Effects of Xenobiotics on Total Antioxidant Capacity

. Toxicol in Vitro 22 : 935-942. Reddy PV, Rao KV, Norenberg MD. (2008). The mitochondrial permeability transition, and oxidative and nitrosative stress in the mechanism of copper toxicity in cultured neurons and astrocytes. Lab Invest 88 : 816-830. Reddy T P, Manczak M, Calkins MJ, Mao P, Reddy AP, Shirendeb U, Park B, Reddy H. (2011). Toxicity of neurons treated with herbicides and neuropro-tection by mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8 : 203-221. Rice-Evans C. (2000). Measurement

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