Zbigniew Staniak, Krzysztof Buśko, Michał Górski and Anna Pastuszak
technique. Another limitation is that only a few cycles can be precisely analysed ( Dadashi et al., 2013 ).
Apart from the cinematographic methodologies for measurement of movement velocity, there are also velocity meter systems where velocity measurements are based on the velocity of unwinding the rope attached to the swimmer's belt ( Chollet et al., 2004 ; Craig et al., 2006 ; Leblanc et al., 2005 ; Seifert et al., 2005 ). The absolute value of changes in velocity is typically analysed and the mean acceleration of motion in individual parts of the cycle is
Bernadette Kerekes-Máthé, Csaba Dudás, Nóra Csergő and Krisztina Mártha
1. Harris E, Smith RN. Accounting for measurement error: a critical but often overlooked process. Arch Oral Biol . 2009;54S:107-117.
2. Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical notes: measurement error. BMJ Clinical Research . 1996;313:744.
3. Smith R, Zaitoun H, Coxon T, et al. Defining new dental phenotypes using 3-D image analysis to enhance discrimination and insights into biological processes. Arch Oral Biol . 2009;54:S118-S125.
4. Brook A, Smith R, Elcock C, Al-Sharood M, Shah A, Karmo M. The measurement of tooth morphology
Caldwell G.E., Robertson D.G.E., Whittlesey S.N. Forces and Measurement. In, Research methods in Biomechanics, Champaign: Human Kinetics , 2004. p. 73-102.
Cormie P., McBride M.J., McCaulley O.G. Validation of power measurement techniques in dynamics lower body resistance exercises. J Appl Biomech , 2007. 23: 103-118
Dugan E., Doyle T.J.A., Humphries B., Hasson C.J. Newton R.U. Determining the optimal load for jump squats: a review of methods and calculations. Journal
Jesús V. Giménez, Anthony S. Leicht and Miguel A. Gomez
verified by self‐reported diaries. On the day of each match, participants arrived at their habitual training facility and body mass (± 0.05 kg) and body height (± 0.1 cm) were measured (Seca 285, Germany). The body fat percentage was estimated by using segmental bioimpedance scales (BC‐418, Tanita, Japan) in line with standardised procedures for this measurement. Participants then completed the standardized warm‐up followed by the match. In order to minimise stoppage time, several balls were placed around the pitch area for immediate access by players. Additionally
the training process and sport performance. The measurement simplicity and non-invasiveness are the main advantages of the HRV monitoring, making this measurement attractive for everyday use in training practice ( Buchheit, 2014 ; Kiviniemi et al., 2014 ; Plews et al., 2013 ).
The methodological approach to the HRV measurement has been standardized since the Task Force was published in 1996. However, certain doubts about HRV analysis and following interpretation still exist ( Farah et al., 2014 ; Pagani et al., 2012 ; Paso et al., 2013 ; Wallén et al., 2012
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association of a novel test of upper body isometric strength against a 1RM bench press measurement. Forty college age adults (n = 20 female, n = 20 male; age 22.8 ± 2.8 years; body height 171.6 ± 10.8 cm; body mass 73.5 ± 16.3 kg; body fat 23.1 ± 5.4%) volunteered for the present investigation. The participants reported to the lab on three occasions. The first visit included anthropometric measurements and familiarization with both the upper body isometric test and bench press exercise. The final visits were conducted in a randomized order, with one being a 1RM assessment on the bench press and the other consisting of three trials of the upper body isometric assessment. For the isometric test, participants were positioned in a “push-up” style position while tethered (stainless steel chain) to a load cell (high frequency) anchored to the ground. The peak isometric force was consistent across all three trials (ICC = 0.98) suggesting good reliability. Multiple regression analysis was completed with the predictors: peak isometric force, gender, against the outcome variable 1RM bench press. The analysis resulted in a significant model (r2 = 0.861, p≤0.001) with all predictor variables attaining significance in the model (p<0.05). Isometric peak strength had the greatest effect on the model (Beta = 5.19, p≤0.001). Results from this study suggest that the described isometric upper body strength assessment is likely a valid and reliable tool to determine strength. Further research is warranted to gather a larger pool of data in regard to this assessment.
Johannes Dirnberger, Hans-Peter Wiesinger, Nicolas Wiemer, Alexander Kösters and Erich Müller
.g. RTD 0–50ms ) during rapid maximum isometric muscle contractions. Besides other discrepancies, existing studies differ with regard to the criterion trail (e.g. out of 5 testing trials) used for deriving explosive strength measurements. On the one hand (version I), explosive strength variables are derived from the MVC-trial ( Aagaard et al., 2002 ; Andersen et al., 2010 ; Gruber et al., 2007 ; Jordan et al., 2015 ), on the other hand (version II) from the trial showing the RTD peak ( Hannah et al., 2012 ; Tillin et al., 2010 ). So far, there seems to be no
Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho, Filipa Almeida, Paulino Padial, Juan Bonitch-Góngora, Blanca de la Fuente and Belén Feriche
., 2014 ). Different measurement methods have been utilised during the routine testing of the loaded vertical jump (e.g, force platforms [FP], linear velocity transducers [LVT], accelerometers, mobile applications, infrared platforms, jump mats, etc.) ( Balsalobre-Fernandez et al., 2015 ; García-Ramos et al., 2016b ; Giroux et al., 2014 ). The FP along with the LVT have been the two measurement methods most utilised to record the values of force, velocity, and power during loaded vertical jumps ( Cormie et al., 2007b ; García-Ramos et al., 2016b ; Hori et al., 2007
development (RFD max ) ( Maffiuletti et al., 2016 ).
Some authors have reported a strong positive relationship between the RFD max and F max achieved during MVCs ( Bellumori et al., 2011 ; Van Cutsem et al., 1998 ; Gołaś et al., 2016 ). Other research studies, however, have shown that the verbal instruction given by the investigator influenced RFD max measurement ( Bozic et al., 2012 ; Christ et al., 1993 ; Holtermann et al., 2007 ; Sahaly et al., 2001 ; Stastny et al., 2015 ). For instance, the recorded RFD max differed when subjects were asked to exert muscle