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Disease perception and coping strategies for stress in Polish patients with various mental disorders

Abstract

Introduction: Nowadays more and more people struggle with mental problems associated with fast pace of life and overpowering stress. Individuals affected by mental disorders frequently apply ineffective methods of coping with stress, and their attitudes towards the disease in fact strengthen the psychopathological symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to compare disease perception and coping strategies for stress in Polish patients with various types of mental disorders.

Material and Methods: The study involved 123 patients with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, alcohol related disorders, subjects detained due to psychoactive substance-induced psychotic disorders and amnestic syndromes, staying at Mental Healthcare Centre. Measurements of the variables were carried out using COPE Inventory and Disease Perception Questionnaire.

Results: The type of mental disorder differentiated the group with respect to the use of strategies aimed at seeking instrumental and emotional support, planning, positive reinterpretation, focus on emotions and substance use. There are significant differences between patients in the approach to illness as a task, weakness and threat.

Conclusions: The results show that the type of mental disorder is important in the context of the strategies used for coping with stress and the patients' approach to their condition.

Open access
Importance of methodological details in the measurement of cortisol in human hair

Abstract

Objective. The measurement of cortisol in hair became a popular and frequently used methodology in human stress research. This methodological approach, depending on the length of hair analyzed, allows to reflect cortisol secretion over prolong time periods in a retrospective fashion. There is a big variability in the experimental approaches to cortisol extraction used in individual laboratories. Moreover, there are many methodological details which are not described in most of the published papers, although they may be influential. The aim of the present study was to identify and optimize selected methodological steps of hair cortisol extraction.

Methods. As the starting point served the methodology of Xiang et al. (2016). A hair pool was used to test the procedures. The main steps modified were pulverization, methanol extraction and centrifugation.

Results. In the presented procedure, we decreased the speed and duration of the pulverization, we increased the volume of methanol and increased the time and speed of centrifugation. The results showed obtaining lower variability and higher cortisol concentrations than those we obtained by the methodology of Xiang et al. (2016), which was optimized.

Conclusion. The presented methodology is relatively simple and is likely to provide reliable results with low variability of cortisol concentrations measured in the same sample.

Open access
Salivary cortisol and nitrite concentrations in school teachers: A longitudinal pilot study

. Duckles SP, Miller VM. Hormonal modulation of endothelial NO production. Pflugers Arch 459, 841–851, 2010. Esch T, Stefano GB, Fricchione GL, Benson H. Stress-related diseases – a potential role for nitric oxide. Med Sci Monit 8, RA103–118, 2002. Farah C, Michel LYM, Balligand JL. Nitric oxide signalling in cardiovascular health and disease. Nat Rev Cardiol 15, 292–316, 2018. Fekedulegn DB, Andrew ME, Burchfiel CM, Violanti JM, Hartly TA. Charles LE, Miller DB. Area under the curve and other summary indicators of repeated waking cortisol measurements

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Elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyreotidis

. Serum C-reactive protein measurement in pyoderma gangrenosum. Dermatologica 173, 216-219, 1986. Sahin S, Sarikaya S, Alcelik A, Erdem A, Tasliyurt T, Akyol L, Altunkas F, Aktas G, Karaman K. Neutrophils to lymphocyte ratio is a useful predictor of atrial fi brillation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Acta Medica Mediterranea 29, 847-851, 2013. Sen BB, Rifaioglu EN, Ekiz O, Inan MU, Sen T, Sen N. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio as a measure of systemic infl ammation in psoriasis. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 33, 223-227, 2014

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Progress in micro RNA focused research in endocrinology

Abstract

Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory molecules of increasing biologists’ interest. miRNAs, unlikely mRNA, do not encode proteins. It is a class of small double stranded RNA molecules that via their seed sequence interact with mRNA and inhibit its expression. It has been estimated that 30% of human gene expression is regulated by miRNAs. One miRNA usually targets several mRNAs and one mRNA can be regulated by several miRNAs. miRNA biogenesis is realized by key enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. miRNA/mRNA interaction depends on binding to RNA-induced silencing complex. Today, complete commercially available methodical proposals for miRNA investigation are available. There are techniques allowing the identification of new miRNAs and new miRNA targets, validation of predicted targets, measurement of miRNAs and their precursor levels, and validation of physiological role of miRNAs under in vitro and in vivo conditions. miRNAs have been shown to influence gene expression in several endocrine glands, including pancreas, ovary, testes, hypothalamus, and pituitary.

Open access
Protective effects of boron and vitamin E on ethylene glycol-induced renal crystal calcium deposition in rat

Abstract

Objectives. Kidney stone disease is a common form of renal disease. Antioxidants, such as vitamin E (Vit E) and boron, are substances that reduce the damage caused by oxidation.

Methods. Adult male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6). In group 1, rats received standard food and water for 28 days (control group); in group 2, standard rodent food and water with 0.75% ethylene glycol/d (dissolved in drinking water) (EG Group); in group 3, similar to group 2, with 3 mg of boron/d (dissolved in water) (EG+B Group); in group 4, similar to group 2, with 200 IU of vitamin E injected intraperitoneally on the first day and the 14th day, (EG+Vit E Group); in group 5, mix of groups 3 and 4, respectively (EG+B+Vit E Group).

Results. Kidney sections showed that crystals in the EG group increased significantly in comparison with the control group. Crystal calcium deposition score in groups of EG+B (160), EG+Vit E, and EG+B+Vit E showed a significant decrease compared to EG group. Measurement of the renal tubules area and renal tubular epithelial histological score showed the highest significant dilation in the EG group. Tubular dilation in the EG+B+Vit E group decreased compared to the EG+B and EG+Vit E groups.

Conclusions. Efficient effect of boron and Vit E supplements, separately and in combination, has a complimentary effect in protection against the formation of kidney stones, probably by decreasing oxidative stress.

Open access
Changes in erythrocyte deformability during day and possible role of melatonin

Abstract

Objectives. The deformability of erythrocytes is their ability to change shape in order to pass through the capillaries. Th is is necessary for quality of microcirculation and sufficient delivery of oxygen to the tissues. Th e aim of our study was to investigate the possible spontaneous changes in the erythrocyte deformability during day and evaluation of the possible direct effects of melatonin (hormone involved in regulation of biorhythms) on the erythrocyte deformability. Methods. Samples of capillary blood were taken from 12 healthy volunteers in the morning (8:00) and early in the evening (16:30). Determination of erythrocyte deformability was done based on the measurement of their filtrability. It was measured immediately aft er the sample collection and 2-hour lasting incubation without or with melatonin (2000 μmol/L). Results. Erythrocyte deformability was significantly lower in the morning (filtrability index: 0.68±0.01 morning vs. 0.71±0.01 early evening, p<0.05). Th e incubation of blood samples with melatonin did not have impact on deformability. Conclusions. We suggest the presence of diurnal changes in erythrocyte deformability with worse values in the morning that may contribute to higher risk of ischemic attacks in the morning hours. Direct in vitro effect of melatonin on deformability was not observed, but possible in vivo effects cannot be excluded.

Open access
Effects of short- and long-term regular exercise on reproductive tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats

Abstract

Objective. Reproductive disorders are one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. Since conflicting results have been obtained from different studies, which examined serum levels of cytokines in patients with diabetes, and considering the fact that the origin of cytokines cannot be accurately determined from their serum changes, attempts were made in the present study to study histological changes and testicular tissue levels of TNF-α and IL-1 in rats treated with exercise. Considering the effects of exercise in reducing blood sugar level and its complications, two types of short-term and long-term regular exercises were also considered to evaluate their effects on male reproductive tissues. Methods. In this study, 60 male rats with the weight range of 250±50 g were used and were randomly divided into six groups (10 rats each). Healthy groups included sedentary control group, and groups treated with two and eight weeks of exercise. Rats with type 1 diabetes (induced by streptozotocin) included sedentary control group, groups treated with two and eight weeks of exercise (six groups). All groups were evaluated in terms of testicular tissue levels of TNF-α and IL-1 using ELISA and the histometry of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, epithelial thickness, diameter of veins, and thickness of the seminiferous tubule. Results. Histological changes resulting from diabetes, particularly in the diameter of testicular veins and a number of cells, including Sertoli, highlights the important fact that tissue perfusion in patients with diabetes is especially crucial, in a way that exercise proved useful for tissue structures by offsetting this complication. Measurement of the cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α in the current study showed that perfusion problems are more important in diabetic complications than inflammatory factors. Conclusions. The main result of this research is recommendation of investigating the tissue of interest for diagnosis of diabetes complications, measuring inflammatory mediators of tissue rather than evaluating their serum concentrations, and focusing on vascular complications as a major complication of diabetes. Furthermore, regular exercise could help improve the function of reproductive organs in healthy groups and prevent diabetes infertility complications to an acceptable degree in diabetic groups.

Open access
Handedness and gender influence blood pressure in young healthy men and women: A pilot study

classifications and health disorders. Laterality 10, 429–440, 2005. Clark CE. Difference in blood pressure measurements between arms: methodological and clinical implications. Curr Pharm Des 21, 737–743, 2015. Dubey RK, Oparil S, Imthurn B, Jackson EK. Sex hormones and hypertension. Cardiovasc Res 53, 688–708, 2002. Dunne FP, Barry DG, Ferriss JB, Grealy G, Murphy D. Changes in blood pressure during the normal menstrual cycle. ClinSci (Lond) 81, 515–518, 1991. Dunson DB, Baird DD, Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR. Day-specific probabilities of clinical pregnancy

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Salivary adiponectin concentration in healthy adult males in relation to anthropometric measures and fat distribution

. Sluyter JD, Schaaf D, Scragg RK, Plank LD. Prediction of fatness by standing 8-electrode bioimpedance: a multiethnic adolescent population. Obesity [Silver Spring] 18, 183-189, 2010. Staiger H, Tschritter O, Machann J, Th amer C, Fritsche A, Maerker E, Schick F, Haring HU, Stumvoll M. Relationship of serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations with body fat distribution in humans. Obes Res 11, 368-372, 2003. Steinberger J, Jacobs DR, Raatz S, Moran A, Hong CP, Sinaiko AR. Comparison of body fatness measurements by BMI and skinfolds vs

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