We adapt the existing validated measurement items from prior studies to suit the setting of this study. The items of synchronicity were adapted from Liu (2003) . Items for visibility were adapted from Fisher (1992) and Karahanna (1999) . Items for Danmu effectance were adapted from Klimmt (2007) . Items for live streaming effectance were adapted from Bründl (2017) and Klimmt (2007) . Items for active Danmu participation were adapted from Gharib’s (2017) and Kuem’s (2017) measures of active participation in social media. We based all measures on 7-point
comparable across fields in the measurement of “publication points” at the level of institutions;
C. A performance-based funding model that reallocates a small proportion of the annual direct institutional funding according the institutions’ shares in the total of publication points.
I first very shortly explain component C. Then I describe how components A and B are constructed for the purposes of the Norwegian model in Norway. In section 3 , I return to component A for explaining the data source used for the results presented in this article.
similar to one of our previous work ( Bu et al., 2018 ).
Data analysis, visualization, and result interpretation: Traditional ACA mainly uses clustering analysis, multidimensional scaling (MDS), and factor analysis to analyze and visualize the data. These methods basically complement with each other. Recently, network analysis becomes popular due to the improved visualization tools and technologies. Furthermore, MDS measurement, other than MDS, calculates the separation and cohesion of the clustering to evaluate the effect of ACA ( Bu et al., 2016 ). Reasonable
when cross-referencing and extracting data from multiple data collections. In response, the participants described commonly used or standardized attributes that scientists in the field often query by or use to tie together studies from different sources. These include spatial and temporal features, measurement techniques, ecosystem types, grid cells, and different attributes of trees. The following responses from the participants highlight these points.
“Since I am a spatial person, I want to be able to do with tabular and spatial queries, that’s very important
More than 4 hours
Measurements for the study variables in the research model.
In general, the information I disclose in WeChat Moment is relatively sensitive.
( Lwin et al., 2016 )
I think the information I disclose in the WeChat Moment belongs to sensitive information.
Comparatively speaking, I’m focused more on preventing negative
Ahmed AlKalbani, Hepu Deng, Booi Kam and Xiaojuan Zhang
Figure 1 . The use of structural equation modeling is appropriate for this study due to its potential for extending the theory development and its capability of simultaneously assessing the multiple and interrelated dependence relationships. This study uses a two-step approach to structural equation modeling, namely a measurement model and a structural model. The measurement model involves in conducting a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for assessing the contribution of each indicator variable and for measuring the adequacy of the measurement model. The structure
Tingting Jiang, Jiaqi Yang, Cong Yu and Yunxin Sang
predict students’ activities and performance so as to help instructors manage courses more effectively ( Brinton & Chiang, 2015 ; J. Park, Denaro, Rodriguez, Smyth, & Warschauer, 2017 ). Analysis of the clickstream data of Internet portals indicated the factors influencing users’ choice of Internet portals (Goldfarb, 2001) and provided suggestions to design websites ( Jiang, 2014 ). As for search engines, clickstream data could help improve the search result ranking ( Kou & Lou, 2012 ) and the measurement accuracy of user experience ( Sadagopan & Li, 2008 ).
majority of the variance (only 22.42%). These results indicated that common method bias was unlikely to be a major issue in the dataset.
Reliability and Validity
We also assessed the construct reliability and validity of the measurement. Specifically, we assessed Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability values ranging from 0.8561 to 0.915 and 0.818 to 0.917, respectively, indicating the good reliability of the measurements ( Table 2 ). We further tested construct validity by convergent and discriminant validities. The convergent validity was tested based on
of information Bell Labs Technical Journal 7 3 535 – 563
Hayes, R. M. (1993). Measurement of information. Information Processing & Management 29(1), 1–11. 10.1016/0306-4573(93)90019-A
Hayes R. M. 1993 Measurement of information Information Processing & Management 29 1 1 – 11
Hayek, F. A. (1967). Studies in philosophy, politics and economics London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Hayek F. A. 1967 Studies in philosophy, politics and economics London, England Routledge & Kegan Paul
Horgan, J. (2016, April 27). Claude Shannon
1 147 155
Narin, F. (2000). Tech-line® background paper. In Tidd J. (Ed.), From knowledge management to strategic competence (pp. 155–195). London: Imperial College Press. Narin F. 2000 Tech-line® background paper In Tidd J. (Ed.), From knowledge management to strategic competence 155 195 London Imperial College Press
Newman, M. E. J. (2004). Analysis of weighted networks. Physical Review E 70 (5), 056131. Newman M. E. J. 2004 Analysis of weighted networks Physical Review E 70 5 056131
Park, G., Shin, J., & Park, Y. (2006). Measurement of depreciation rate