-Sánchez & Robin Linacre, Refining the Measurement of Consistency in Sentencing: A Methodological Review , 44 I NT ’ L J. L. C RIME & J UST . 68, 78 tbl.1 (2016). For more information on the potential limitations on single-level models, see the methodological Appendix. The study also responds to a call for more research on court-level factors in judicial decisionmaking. Rob Tillyer & Richard Hartley, The Use and Impact of Fast-Track Departures: Exploring Prosecutorial and Judicial Discretion in Federal Immigration Cases , 62 C RIME & D ELINQ . 1624, 1640 (2016). In the
exist for one purpose only, to maximize shareholders’ wealth.” Id . at 2). increasingly companies are determining that many considerations other than maximizing short-term profits actually contribute to their medium- and long-term viability. See generally Manuela Weber, The Business Case for Corporate Social Responsibility: A Company-Level Measurement Approach for CSR , 26 Eur. Mgmt J. 247, 248-252 (2008). An appreciation of the various stakeholders in a company and their respective duties and obligations is fundamental to understanding the different
affirmative duty, or not determine it fully, because specification requires an ordering of competing goods—alternative possibilities that possess intrinsic, intelligible value but which cannot all be pursued because of limitations of time, resources, abilities, and other human limitations—and those goods will not be measurable against each other on any common scale of measurement. Basic goods are incommensurable. See generally R AZ , Freedom , supra note 9, at 145-46, 279-84; Finnis, supra note 5, at Chs. III, IV, and V. And therefore the goods chosen and pursued
collection of willful commands, untethered from socially-recognizable rules of at least substantial predictability that are administered with at least substantial impartiality, is not the rule of law, but the rule of men—and not only is formulating a legal rule without using legal concepts impossible, but a legal rule is a legal concept. Here, we can usefully employ the term a priori . Even something as simple as “Do not exceed 55MPH” involves multiple prior legal concepts such as “a rule,” “meant to guide subjects’ behavior,” “a measurement of physical speed meant to
Past 25 Years? , 25 J. E CON . P ERSP . 181 (2011); Robert Gibbons, Four Formal(izable) Theories of the Firm , 58 J. E CON . B EHAV . & O RG .200 (2005).
A more general approach in commercial contexts is quality control. Quality control (of products and services) includes the incentive-related measures just mentioned but is grounded on direct measurement and evaluation of outcomes. Firms inspect and test finished products and services for adherence to design specifications and customer satisfaction. A feedback loop adjusts organizational practices and incentive
guidelines that the Federal Home Administration and private lenders developed to calculate how much of an annual salary a law school graduate has to earn in relation to annual law school tuition to achieve marginal, adequate, and good ratios of income to debt. Jim Chen, A Degree of Practical Wisdom: The Ratio of Educational Debt to Income as a Basic Measurement of Law School Graduates’ Economic Viability , 38 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 1185 (2012). See also Jim Chen, ARM-Twisting “A Degree of Practical Wisdom”: A One-Year Readjustment of Legal Education’s Debt-Based Stress
· Albert Max, 2003, ‘The Voting Power Approach: Measurement without Theory’, European Union Politics, IV(3): 351-366.
· Albert Max, 2004, ‘The voting Power Approach: Unresolved Ambiguities’, European Union Politics, V(1): 139-146.
· Baldwin Richard and Widgrén Mika, 2004, ‘Winners and losers under various dual-majority voting rules for the EU’s Council of Ministers’, CEPS Policy Brief, 50, 1-35.
· Banzhaf John F., 1965, ‘Weighted voting does not work: A mathematical analysis’, Rutgers
Reynolds Glenn H. and Denning Brannon P., 2012, ‘National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius: Five Takes’, Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, XL(4): 807-832.
Roberts Nancy C. (ed), 2008, The Age of Direct Citizen Participation, Routledge, New York.
Rockoff Hugh, 1999, ‘World War II and the Growth of the U.S. Federal Government’, Japan and the World Economy, XI: 245-262.
Rodden Jonathan, 2004, ‘Comparative Federalism and Decentralization: On Meaning and Measurement’, Comparative Politics, XXXVI(4): 481
A Long Normative History of a Statistical Category in the U.K
benefit level. Erhard Meier, »The New NRS Classification Measurements. The Differences Between Chief Income Earner, Head of Household, Housewife and Shopper«, in: Conference Papers, The Market Research Society, 37th Annual Conference, 16–18 March 1994, International Convention Centre, Birmingham 1994, p. 139–145, at p. 140.
Although there were different labels in use, the governmental and the non-governmental social surveys used the same biased definitions and procedures of identifying the ›Head of Household‹. This did not change within the next decade. In 1984, a