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Items, Advantages/Disadvantages [Electronic resource] / University of Minnesota, 2008. - http://www.nursing.umn.edu/Preceptors/evaluation/Module3/advantages.html Designing Test Questions [Electronic resource] / The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 1998. - http://www.utc.edu/Administration/WalkerTeachingResourceCenter/FacultyDevelopment/Assessment/test-questions.html Lukashenko R., Vilkelis M., Anohina A. Deciding on the Architecture of the Concept Map Based Knowledge Assessment System // Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Systems and

Abstract

Within the last few years, significant changes have taken place in the geopolitical and economic spheres of Europe: Euromaidan, annexation of the Crimea in the East, and problems inside the European Union (issue of migrants, Brexit) in the West. These changes had their impact on Belarus, a country situated between Russia and the EU. Conflict between Ukraine and Russia shook the Belarusian economy. Belarusian authorities were afraid about unexpected Russian steps towards Minsk and about social unrest against their own authoritarian president. All of this forced Alexander Lukashenko to search for new solutions in his policies. During recent months, it was possible to observe the change of a political discourse with Poland, attempts of a cautious cooperation with Russia (which is still Belarus’ main ally), and a search for new sources of finances and energy suppliers. The present situation is a new challenge for Belarusian authorities and even for foreign observers. For inhabitants of the country, the situation is not comfortable.

This article aims to present, based on selected sources, the synthesis of actions that were taken in the external and internal politics by the Belarusian authorities after the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula.

bezpieczeństwa Białorusi, Mironowicz E. (2011), Polityka zagraniczna Białorusi 1990-2010, Parker S. (2007) The Last Soviet Republic. Alexander Lukashenko’s Belarus, Pazura G. (2010) Siły zbrojne republiki Białoruś, Rácz A. (2016) Friends will be friends. The new military doctrine of Belarus, in Sprūds A., Potjomkina D. (ed) Coping with Complexity in the Euro-Atlantic Community and Beyond: Rīga Conference Papers 2016, (Riga LIIA), pp. 230- 238, Rezmer W. (2015), Potencjał wojskowy Republiki Białorusi na początku drugiej dekady XXI wieku, in Giętkowski M., Nadolski Ł. (ed) Wojny

-eastern border of Lithuania, where a none-too-friendly interwar Poland changed to a Belarus governed by Alexander Lukashenko. Lithuania’s northern border with Latvia, also a NATO member at present, remains unchanged and comparatively safe; in the interwar period, only attempts were made to dis- cuss the idea of having mutual defence although Latvia had planned to provide some support for the Lithuanian forces in the case of a Wehrmacht attack from East Prussia to the East. So it is expedient to elaborate on what attention the Lithuanian Armed Forces in the interwar period

The Rise and Fall of Belarus' Geopolitical Strategy

By deploying a combination of foreign policy analysis tools at the system, state and, to a certain extent, individual level this article is undertaking to trace the trajectory and some critical junctions of Belarus' foreign policy strategy in the 21st century. Special focus is given to the implications of president Alexander Lukashenko's recent crackdown on domestic opposition for the mechanism of geopolitical balancing between Russia and the West that has been in place for more than a decade.

The world financial and economic crisis has sharpened contradictions between Belarus and Russia and forced Minsk to seek ways for cooperation with Western partners. After the beginning of the normalization of relations with the European Union the Belarusian authorities have intensified its policy of balancing between the East and the West. For Minsk the EU's role in this arrangement has grown beyond its previous rhetorical importance. Belarus has actively tried to equalize its Eastern and Western policy poles and also to complement them with a new "Southern arc" by boosting relationships with Asian, Latin American, and the Arab states.

Under the conditions of globalization Minsk started to use networking geopolitical technologies to promote cooperation with China, Iran, Venezuela, Cuba, Libya, Syria and other states, which are geographically distant, but whose political and economic interests are in various degrees compatible with those of Belarus. In this way Minsk has attempted to become a political and economic player outside its traditional geopolitical zone and to compensate for the costs of problematic dealings with its neighbors Russia and the EU.

Meanwhile, because of a reluctant and forced adaptation to the external environment Belarus' foreign policy remains extremely contradictory and despite some correctives it retains many inadequate tenets.

A brutal dispersal by the Belarusian authorities of a peaceful action of pro-democratic forces on the day of presidential elections (December 19, 2010) and the following massive political repressions became a watershed that marked the failure of the regime's preceding domestic and foreign policies, exposed its obsession with power and destroyed the balancing mechanism for its geopolitical ‘avatars’ designed individually for the East, West and ‘South’.

References [1] BOGACHEV, V. I.: Foundations of Measure Theory, Vol. 2 . Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, Moscow-Izhevsk, 2003. (In Russian) [2] GONG, Z. T.: On a problem of Skvortsov involving Perron integral, Real Anal. Exchange 17 (1991/92), 748-750. [3] LEE, P. Y.-V´YBORN´Y, R.: The Integral: An Easy Approach after Kurzweil and Henstock , in: Austral. Math. Soc. Lect. Ser., Vol. 14, Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, 2000. [4] LUKASHENKO, T. P.-SKVORTSOV, V. A.-SOLODOV, A. P.: Generalized Integrals . URSS, Moscow, 2009. [5] OSTASZEWSKI, K. M.: Henstock

.V., Litvintseva, G.P., Os'muk, L.A. (2009): Kachestvo zhizni naselenija v Rossii i ee regionah: kol. Monografija (Quality of life in Russia and its regions: Collective monograp) , Izd-vo NGTU, Novosibirsk. Karpovich, A., Litvintseva, G. (2018), Essence and Estimation of Economic System Sustainability , Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics. Springer, pp. 99–110. Litvintseva, G.P., Stukalenko E.A. (2014), Differentiation of Population Incomes in Innovative Regions of Russia , Procedia Economics and Finance V. 16, pp. 56–63. Melnikov, V.V., Lukashenko, O.A. (2017

Scientific Proceedings of Riga Technical University, 5th Series, Computer Science. Applied Computer Systems, Vol. 38, 2009, pp. 13-24. [6] Vilkelis M., Anohina A., Lukashenko R. Architecture and Working Principles of the Concept Map Based Knowledge Assessment System. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Virtual Learning (ICVL 2008), October 31 - November 2, 2008, Constanta, Romania, pp. 81-90. [7] Ehrig M. Ontology Alignment: Bringing the Semantic Gap. Berlin- Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2007, 247 p. [8] Euzenat J., Shvaiko P. Ontology Matching. Berlin

. Anohina A., Lavendelis E., Grundspenkis J. Concept Map Based Assessment System with Reduction of Task Difficulty // Proceedings of the 16 th International Conference on Information Systems Development. - 2007. - P.853-866. Anohina A., Pozdnakovs D., Grundspenkis J. Changing the Degree of Task Difficulty in Concept Map Based Assessment System // Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference "e-Learning 2007". - 2007. - P.443-450. Lukashenko R., Vilkelis M., Anohina A. Deciding on the Architecture of the Concept Map Based Knowledge Assessment System // Proceedings of

information about the composition, structure and activity of the Secretariat, though supposedly it might be composed of a hundred or possibly even more officials13. Although, in V. Paznyak’s words, the powers of the SCB changed in different periods of time, the key function of this body still remained the control of the main force structures14. When President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko came to power, al- most all force structures, from top (those shaping policy) to bottom ((those implementing policy in districts), including the SCB, were reformed. Since 1992, the