Andrzej Richling, Ewa Malinowska and Iwona Szumacher
The main objective of this paper is to represent the hierarchical structure of an environment by using two concepts: typology and regionalization. The Płock Region (1,766.95 sq. km) and transect crossing this area (796.2 sq. km) is the research location. It was divided into 710 individual landscape units (319 in the transect border). The existing physical-geographical regionalization, including macro-, meso- and micro-regions, was elaborated using a deductive (top-down) method, which was supplemented by a more detailed regionalization, obtained by an inductive (bottom-up) method called analysis of borders (Richling 1976). The study area was divided into more detailed sub-regions: first-level regions (87 units), second-level regions (36 units) and third-level regions (9 units). In fact, the landscape structure of third-level regions is similar to micro-regions. This is proof of the complementary nature of the two approaches – deductive and inductive regionalization, and the hierarchical landscape structure.
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The development of viticulture and wine producing has brought forward some unique elements of cultural land and introduced culture itself into the landscape. This culture has affected lives of many generations and determined the development of the society and the living environment. The form, the shape and the type of use of the respective elements of landscape structure has changed according to the change in technology, cultivation processes, orientation of production and the value system of the society. However, the recent viticultural rural land (together with residual areas of historical structure elements) in the vicinity of the capital city of Slovakia -- Bratislava has been under growing pressure caused by suburbanisation. This pressure directly threatens the existence of this kind of landscape and causes irreversible changes to landscape character. Landscape ecologists and architects have to face the issue of how to identify the valuable characteristics of the land and how to protects and keep them for the future generations. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the role of viticulture in the formation, existence and change of the elements of historical structures of agricultural landscape (HSAL). In addition, this paper presents the layout of various types of these elements, the methodical approach to their mapping and their present status. The results show that out of 141 localities where the HSALs were present in 1951, they could have been located only in 25 localities in 2011. These localities are mainly situated in private properties. However, many of the mapped HSALs are no longer used and in the state of deterioration. The lack of their management gradually causes their demise.
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Antropogenically Created Forest Edge in the Starohorské Vrchy Mts. on the Example of Donovaly Village
Forest edges represent specific elements forming the character of landscape. They are very important factors in ecological stability. To know and to understand them as a part of dynamic and hierarchic structure in vertical and horizontal shaping of the landscape contributes to understanding of the processes between forest and non-forested landscape in connection to influence of ecological factors towards broad knowledge of the country in the shape of its utilization and monitoring of its dynamic changes. The aim of the paper is to analyze in a geographic sense the types of anthropic forest edges in the area of Starohorské vrchy Mts. (on the example of Donovaly village) and their partial geographic synthesis in the frame of chosen attributes and forest edge functions. Basic question is whether human activity influences the dynamics of environmental variables, its structure, taxonomic diversity and other attributes of forest edges.